پیشنهادهای پژوهش رشته زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی

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عنوان پایان نامه

پیشنهادهای پژوهش

Construction and Validation of a Self-Efficacy Scale for the English Language Learners’ Textbooks, Comparative Analysis of Current ELT Textbooks, and Designing a Sample of  Self-Efficacy Enhancing Lesson through a Mixed Methods Approach

     The researcher firstly recommends further evaluation of the other currently applied textbooks to detect their strengths and weak points and to take advantage of their deficiencies for further improvement of the forthcoming ELT textbooks and local materials. Secondly, the study could be enriched by conducting Exploratory Factor Analysis to investigate the other underlying potential factors as well as Confirmatory Factor Analysis to propose a relevant model. Thirdly, it is recommended to conduct an experimental phase and administer a t-Test to examine the effectiveness of the newly constructed lesson quantitatively, as well. Moreover, since it beyond the scope of this study to take all the other variables into account, it is recommended to examine the potential role of other extraneous variables such as gender, age, degree, language proficiency level, and motivation in the textbook evaluation, as well. Finally, the study could be conducted again by validating a 4-category rating scale through Rasch model. 

Investigating the Translation Expectancy Norms of Iranian College Student Readership in terms of English Fiction in Persian

Even irrespective of the unique research design used in the study of norms, this research project can be somewhat considered pioneering, since not a single study, according to the researcher’s best knowledge, is done on the subject at hand. Thus it calls for more research in this area including larger and more samples of participants as well as using a variety of methods.
The study exclusively aims at determining the expectations of university students from translation of literary fiction such as short stories and novels. Due to the given time frame and available resources to the researcher, and because of the vastness and depth of the research area of norms, the study uses the above delimitations, and as a result other possible audiences such as graduates and other walks of life as well as other translation types and genres are excluded in the study. 
In order to determine the expectations from translation of other genres and text types, and in those in the view of other readerships further studies should be carried out.

تاثیر گذشت زمان بر کاهش و افزایش در ترجمه

این پژوهش به بررسی تاثیر گذشت زمان بر انواع کاهش و افزایش در ترجمه پرداخته است. چنین تحقیقی را می‌توان در مورد سایر روش‌های ترجمه و تغییرات آنها با گذشت زمان انجام داد.
با توجه به این که آثار مورد بررسی در این تحقیق تنها آثار ادبی را در بر می‌گیرد، می‌توان در پژوهش‌های آتی آثار غیر ادبی و همچنین آثار یک مترجم واحد در دوره‌های زمانی گوناگون را نیز مورد بررسی قرار داد.
در این پژوهش به طور ویژه ترجمه از زبان انگلیسی به فارسی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. می توان جنین تحقیقی را در مورد زوج های زبانی دیگر اجرا نمود.
در دهه‌های آتی فراوانی آثاری که در دوره‌های زمانی گوناگون ترجمه شده‌اند، افزایش خواهد یافت و همچنین می‌توان تغییرات را در بازه‌های زمانی طولانی تر مورد واکاوی قرار داد.
دامنه این تحقیق به بررسی کاهش و افزایش محتوایی و اطلاعاتی در ترجمه پرداخته‌است. بررسی کاهش و افزایش زبانی می‌تواند اطلاعات جدیدی را در رابطه با تغییرات ترجمه در گذر زمان فراهم آورد.

The Relationship between Fluid Intelligence and English Language Achievement in Iranian Adolescents

The result of the present study can guide educators, teachers, and researchers to continue exploring the ways individuals’ Gf affect their language achievement tests; moreover, it will assist test designers and material developers to provide rather fair material.
A replication of this study could be done covering some other variables such as   adolescents’ level of proficiency, socio-cultural background, economic status, etc.The same study could be repeated in other contexts such as guidance school, high schools or other EFL institutes.This study was conducted in an EFL context; a similar one could be done in an ESL context.
This study was conducted on written achievement of adolescent learners; similar one could be done on oral performance or speaking abilities of adolescent learners.
The same study with a larger sample would be highly desirable and fruitful if the findings are to be generalized.
A replica of this study could be done in a wider scope by dividing the participants’ proficiency level into low and high intermediate instead of elementary and study their relationships with Gf and foreign language achievement.
A similar study could be done on the relationship between learners’ fluid intelligence and different test formats.
Another area for research could be analysing the performance of adolescents on other intelligence tests that measure other kind of intelligence such as multiple intelligence, etc.

Validating a Spiritual Intelligence Scale Translated into Persian and Exploring Its Relationship with Grade Three Senior High School Students’ English Achievement

A number of questionnaires have been developed to measure spiritual intelligence so far. This study validated just one of them with G3SHS students, i.e., Spiritual Intelligence Self Report Inventory (SISRI). The validation is based on the schema-based translation of the SISRI into Persian. Although the Persian SISRI enjoys factorial as well as theoretical validity it suffers from ambiguity. The key cognitive schemata “awareness” and “higher consciousness” proved to be difficult to G3SHS students and the researcher had to explain them in person. Oral explanation thus introduced an external verifiable to the process of validation which might have affected the results adversely. It is therefore suggested that the Persian SISRI be revised by explaining the key terms in writing and be validated again. The replication of this study with revised species might corroborate its findings and shed better lights to understand spiritual intelligence better.
 It is also suggested that the reverse item six, “It is difficult for me to sense anything other than the physical and material”, be converted into a positive species. This can be easily done by replacing the schema “difficult” with “easy”. As the results of this study show, the very reverse nature of the species has resulted in its negative loading on genus six called Theorizing. It seems that turning reverse species into positive statements bring about different patterns of loading on extracted genera. Future research must show to what extent this hypothesis stands to empirical testing.

اعتبار يابي پرسشنامه PPI توسط دانش آموزان پايه سوم دبيرستان و کشف رابطه فاکتورهاي به دست آمده از اين پرسشنامه با موفقيت زباني دانش آموزان

Based on the findings of this study several suggestions are made for future research. The first   suggestion is the replication of present study with a broader and more representative sample of G3SHS students. The present researcher held the PI in the schools whose principals were cooperative and thus could not opt for a random sampling strategy. If endorsed by the bureau of education, stratified sampling must be used to choose schools from high, middle and low-income areas of eleven educational districts in Mashhad where the social and cultural capitals of students can be explored and related to G3SHS students’ personality and English achievement.
 Administrating the PPI to grade four senior high school (G4SHS) students is the second suggestion of the present study. The results must show whether registering in G4SHSs where the students enter into a critical phase of their life affects their personality as a domain and relates it to their English achievement. Khodadady, Fakhrabadi and Azar (2012), for example, developed the English Language Teachers’ Attribute Scale (ELTAS) as a measure of teacher effectiveness and showed that it relates significantly to G3SHS students’ English achievement (r = .11, p<.01). Khodadady and Dastgahian (2015a) administered the ELTAS to G4SHS students and found a stronger relationship between the two (r = .15, p<.01), indicating that English language teachers play a greater role in G4SHS students’ English achievement.
 And finally it is suggested that the PI be administered with objective achievement tests such as schema-based cloze multiple choice item tests or S-Tests. Khodadady and Dastgahian (2015b) employed the S-Test designed by Khodadady and Ghergloo (2014) and administered it along with the ELTAS to G4SHS students. Their results showed that not only the teacher effectiveness domain itself but also its Lenient genus relate significantly to students’ English achievement (r = .27 and .18, p<.01, respectively), when it is measured by grade three final English examination held nationally whereas they do not correlate significantly with the S-Test, indicating that teachers’ characteristics have no role in their students’ achievement when it is measured objectively.

What’s in a Color?
A neuropsycholinguistic study on the effect of colors on EEG brainwaves, immediate emotional responses, and English language vocabulary retention in Iranian young adults

Conducting any research opens up new scopes for future research. In conclusion, a repeat of this study may prove worthwhile if given a slightly different design. Researchers interested in emotional responses to colors and particularly in the color influences on vocabulary retention can explore the study with more participants and a more representative sample so that more accurate results can be obtained. Different age groups can be examined to gain more understanding about the issue. Expanded study in different age groups from childhood to adulthood can be conducted to examine gender differences too. A replication of this study with different arrays of color can give comprehensive understanding of the issues raised here. Furthermore, considering different color tones –brightness and chroma –rather than hue in this regard would be the subject of future investigation. Cross-cultural studies could be conducted to identify similar or different patterns in the participants’ psychological, behavioral, and physiological reactions to colors. In the present study, all colors were presented either with black foreground or white background. Future work might involve investigation of emotional responses to colors in which colors are presented with different colored foregrounds and backgrounds. This could lead to investigations of individuals’ response to color harmony and color associations. The expanded development of the linguistic phase of the study could provide for the potential of a more efficient and effective use of technology in education. One could increase the time of exposure to the color in neurology phase or examine EEG brainwaves related to different brain zones such as Oz, f4, or t3 and different brainwaves such as alpha or theta to get the various effects of colors on brain. A more complete understanding of the role of color in memory might be obtained by replicating the study utilizing a combination of the methodology used for this current project and the current technologies (e.g. PET, MEG, and MRI). Finally, none of the participants had any special English vocabulary knowledge. In case, the study was conducted with English language students, the results of vocabulary retention tests may differ.

An Examination of the Contrastive Analysis of Swearing Speech Act in English and Persian Discourse

This study was an attempt to find the amounts and frequencies of swearing speech acts in English and Persian languages. The present study was just limited to the real life contexts and mostly dealt with colloquial language which is only one genre among different genres. Therefore the present research can be extended to other genres and also other fields. The reason for focusing on real life contexts was the fact that they were considered as texts which are closer to general speech acts because they have more colloquial language.
 Furthermore, another issue of investigation in further studies is changing the method of investigation. Since, this study was based on the demographic method, other researchers can try some other methods of investigation. Although it deserves mentioning that using a variety of methods might lead us to various results.
 Subsequent studies could also examine whether the same pattern would hold across other languages and cultures.
 The comparison of other speech acts between our language as the source and different languages as the target languages can also be an issue for further study.
 Furthermore, the current study did not consider gender factor which can be an interesting issue for other researchers.
 Another interesting research which can be conducted by others is related to considering some participants and giving them some treatments related to this topic. 
 Also the acquisition of speech acts in general and swearing words in particular in children can be a subject for further studying.
     Still another suggestion for further research is to try to make a relationship between contrastive analysis and the issue of EFL errors which is related to the field of error analysis.
       Finally, teachers of foreign languages can design and plan some naturally occurring conversations based on people’s real life situation in the classroom context in order to make their students aware of the existence of a number of speech acts which might be culture-specific across nations..

بررسی انگیزه‌ها و اهداف دانشجویان از تحصیل در کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی

افراد شرکت کننده در این تحقیق دانشجویان دو دانشگاه غیر دولتی در شهر مشهد بودند، بنابراین داده‌های حاصل از این تحقیق قابل تعمیم به تمامی دانشجویان رشته مترجمی نمی‌باشد. برای اینکه میزان جامعیت داده‌ها بیشتر شود می‌توان با افراد بیشتری و در دانشگا‌ه‌های بیشتری مصاحبه انجام داد.
در این تحقیق پرسشنامه‌ها تنها بین 100 نفر توزیع شدند و داده‌های حاصل از آن به صورت توصیفی بیان شد. در تحقیقات آینده می‌توان تعداد افراد را افزایش داد و به صورت کیفی وکمی انگیزه‌های دانشجویان را مورد بررسی قرار داد.
تحقیقات آتی می‌توانند عواملی که باعث کاهش و یا افزایش انگیزه دانشجویان برای تحصیل در رشته مترجمی انگلیسی می‌باشد را شناسایی کنند.  همچنین می‌توان تأثیر جنسیت افراد بر نوع انگیزه و میزان انگیزه افراد را مورد بررسی قرار داد. محققان در آینده می‌توانند میزان تغییر در انگیزه دانشجویان از ترم اول تا ترم‌‌های آخر رانیز شناسایی کنند.
می‌توان انگیزه‌ها و اهداف دانشجویان کارشناسی، کارشناسی ارشد و دکترای از تحصیل در رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی را شناسایی کرد و آن‌ها را با هم مقایسه کرد.
تحقیقات در آینده می‌توانند ارتباط بین میزان انگیزه دانشجویان وعملکرد تحصیلی آنان را مورد بررسی قرار دهند. می‌توان نوع انگیزه و اهداف دانشجویان رشته‌های مختلف گروه زبان انگلیسی از انتخاب رشته را موردبررسی  قرار داد و شباهت‌ها و تفاوت‌های آن‌ها را مورد ارزیابی قرار داد.
با توجه به کیفی بودن تحقیق می‌توان همین تحقیق را در چند دانشگاه دیگر انجام داد و به نتایج متفاوتی دست یافت.

ضرورت بروزرسانی برنامه درسی دوره کارشناسی مترجمی زبان انگلیسی بر مبنای
نیازهای بازار ترجمه در ایران

در این تحقیق، چهار گروه از فعالان بازار (شامل: دارالترجمه  ها، شعبه بین  الملل بانک  ها، ناشران و آژانس  های مسافرتی) و دو گروه از افرادی که به صورت مستقیم با برنامه موجود سروکار دارند (شامل: اساتید و دانشجویان این رشته) در نظر گرفته شدند. آنچه که مسلم است این است که بازار ترجمه بسیار وسیع است و گروه  های دیگری را نیز در بر می  گیرد، برای مثال گروه  هایی همچون: مطبوعات، سینما، هتل  ها، مهمانداران هواپیما، صدا و سیما، وزارت امور خارجه و دیگر موارد. بنابراین، پژوهش  های آتی می  تواند روی گروه  های وسیع  تری از بازار صورت بگیرد

تحلیل هنجارهای نحوی، معنایی و منظورشناختی ترجمه: مورد‌پژوهی رمان غرور و تعصب

 بررسی هنجارهای آغازین و مقدماتی در ترجمه از انگلیسی به فارسی
2- بررسی هنجارها در پیکره‌ای متفاوت
3- بررسی هنجارها در دیگر انواع متون
4- بررسی دیگر ساختارهای تغییریافته در فرایند ترجمه
5- بررسی دلایل اجتماعی- فرهنگی هنجارهای موجود
6- بررسی هنجارهای کاربردی در کارگاه‌های تربیت مترجم

بررسی چگونگی گسترش زبان فارسی از طریق ترجمه: مورد پژوهی چهار ترجمه از کتاب "چنین گفت زرتشت"

با بررسی کتابهایی که مورد اقبال عموم قرار می‌گیرد و توجه صاحب نظران را به خود جلب می‌کند می توان عواملی که باعث موفقیت این ترجمه ها شده است را شناسایی کرد. برای یافتن ساختارهای مشترک میان ترجمه های پرفروش و دلیل جذابیت آنها برای خوانندگان و هم چنین انتظارات آنها می‌توان پایه کار مطالعاتی باشد که در آینده انجام می شود.
پیدا کردن روش‌های موثر مترجمین موفق نیز می تواند موضوع جالب دیگری برای پژوهش‌های آینده باشد.

The Role of Foreign Language Leaners’ Cultural
Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence in their Language Achievement

The present study was a quantitative research relying on sophisticated statistical method which explored CQ and SQ in the Iranian EFL context. This method is dependent on students’ self-report which may be complemented with qualitative methods. Therefore, further research can explore CQ and SQ in the Iranian context using qualitative methods like oral or written structured interview, teachers’ review form, classroom observation record and personal interview and observation. The other was learners’ misunderstanding of SQ meaning. Since it is a new subject in Iran, most of the students could not grasp its’ meaning and mostly relate it to religion. In contrast with CQ, unfamiliarity with SQ made cause considerable confusions.
In this study, expect from some subscales of SQ, the total SQ did not show any significant relationship with language achievement. This could be related to unfamiliarity with this intelligence. Future research can be done in situation that learners first have a training course on SQ, in advance.
This study was conducted in formal setting of university. These students mostly study English in formal setting such as school and university. Therefore, other similar studies could be done in the informal context of language institutes. We can also do this research on graduate students who had contact with English for a longer period.
 The researcher in the present study asked students to write their final GPA. This method may not be appropriate as the students may not remember their exact GPA due to some cognitive shortcomings. Although it was not possible for the present study to perform a standardized test of proficiency like IELTS or TOEFL because of time and cost constraints, future research can use these tests to have better evaluation of the learners’ L2 proficiency.

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Art in English Translation Studies

Even irrespective of the unique research design used in the study of cultural orientations, this research project can be somewhat considered pioneering, since not a single study, according the researcher’s best knowledge, is done on the subject at hand. Thus it calls for more research in this area including larger and more samples of participants as well as using a variety of methods.
The study exclusively aims at determining the cultural orientations of Iranian English translation students. Due to the given time frame and available resources to the researcher, and because of the vastness and depth of the research area of cultural orientations, the study uses the above delimitations, and as a result other possible audiences such as professional translators as well as other data collection instruments such as interviews and observations are excluded in the study..
     It goes without saying that the findings of the study are limited with the non-probability sample used, and it is plausible that different results are obtained if a larger and random sample is used in later studies. The results of the study is specially limited in terms the correlation with translation performance of the participants with the fact that only a small subset of the sample could complete the translation task and the relation between the cultural orientations of professional or prospective translators could be different than what was found in this study if a bigger subset or all of the participants of the sample took part in a translation product test which may also control for more intervening variables. 
     The findings of this thesis is limited to translation field. The constructed scale can be used in other fields for measuring the cultural orientations of the students of other fields such as Iranian English teaching and literature students or Iranian linguistics students. Since the study of numerous other aspects of the Iranian English translators’ cultural orientations is fairly inconclusive, more research in this area including larger and probability samples of participants, inclusion of other relevant variables, as well as using a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and analysis are highly recommended.

Stress in Written and Sight Translation across Men and Women

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress in writing and sight translation across men and women.  Collected data were analyzed and significant and insignificant findings were resulted.  The findings have some limitations.  One limitation is that our sample was small and selected from certain universities in one city.  Further Studies can also be conducted on larger samples of students and translators that are working.  Another limitation is limitations of measuring blood pressure and heart rate in this study.  To have a correct resting heart rate, it is better to measure heart rate after waking up or half of an hour resting.  It was not practically possible in this study because the researcher has to do the measurements in the premises of the universities and because of time constraints, half an hour rest is impossible.  For a better conclusion, measurement can be done in a more convenient place and enough time allotted.  In blood measurement, the first reading is usually higher than other readings because of spasm of the artery upon initial compression and the anxiety and apprehension of the participants, but as this study was done on students in universities, there was no time for several measurements.  From further research, the first blood measurement can be excluded from the study.  Among several general methods of measuring stress like psychological questionnaires and physiological symptoms, we measured the levels of stress by recording changes in blood pressure and heart rate in this research.  Other studies can be conducted using other methods of measuring of stress.  Of different blood pressure monitoring devices available in the market, this study uses wrist blood pressure monitoring.  Other devices with more reliable measures like ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can be used.  This study only used non-literary and technical text among the different text types for the experiments.  Other studies can be conducted by other text types.  Participating in this research also can be stressful.  Further studies can be conducted that the translators be observed in an everyday environment that is natural to them and the observation that do not risk interfering with the process to obtain the most accurate results

The factorial validity of motivations underlying English language learning among blind junior and senior high school students and its relationship with their English language achievement

The findings of the present study do establish a significant relationship between English achievement and motivation as a domain. They also show that the Intrinsic, Self-Satisfying, Communicative, Other-Satisfying, and Self-Encouraging genera of the domain relate significantly to blind students’ English achievement. A replication study is, however, suggested to be conducted in order to find out whether similar results will be obtained in terms of the factorial validity of the domain and its relationship with English achievement. The study should, nonetheless, be conducted in cosmopolitan cities such as Tehran and Shiraz where a representative sample can be recruited.
In addition to replicating the study in similar settings, it is suggested that the students’ English achievement be measured by objective tests such as C-Tests (Klein-Braley, 1997) and schema-based tests or S-Tests (Khodadady, Alavi&Khaghaninejad, 2011, 2012; Khodadady &Elahi, 2012; Khodadady, &Hadizadeh, 2013; Khodadady &Hessarzadeh, 2014). Khodadady and Dastgahian (2014b), for example, administered the S-Test designed by Khodadady and Ghergloo (2013) as well as the ELTAS to 440 G4SHS students.  When they correlated the students’ scores on the S-Test with the domain and its genera, they found significant relationship neither with the domain nor with its Lenient genus. The final English Examination (FEE) held by the Ministry of Education, however, correlated significantly with the domain and genus, indicating that marking some tests such as FEE  is influenced by extraneous variables such as leniency.
And finally it is suggested the MUELLS be administered along with other psychological measures such as the ELTAS. It is of educational importance to find out whether EFL learners’ motivation and its underlying genera relate significantly to teacher effectiveness domain and its constituting genera. Every year considerable amount of time and budget are spent on educating EFL teachers. Knowing how motivation relates to teachers’ attributes will help design the most cost and time effective curriculum for the would-be as well as practicing teachers. Appropriate textbooks can also be written on these findings to avoid teaching irrelevant materials to these teachers and thus enhance their effectiveness. 

Investigating the Relationship between Ambiguity Tolerance /
Cultural Intelligence and Language Achievement:
The Case of Iranian Advanced EFL Learners

This study was done in the context of advanced EFL learners, studying at Ferdowsi University and Azad University of Mashhad; it would be of interest to find out if such findings of significance can be found in other learning environments, like English institutes.
     As cultural intelligence and ambiguity of tolerance in present study had relationship with learners’ achievement, the further researchers could be done teaching the different aspect of foreign language’ culture to improve cultural intelligence, after that they can check the level of low tolerant learners and low learners’ achievement.
     Moreover, as important aim for language learners is to be successful in language learning. The further researches are needed to find the learning strategies to improve the cultural intelligence and ambiguity tolerance which leads to a higher language proficiency.

تحلیل انتقادی گفتمان قدرت در خطابه های سیاسی ریس جمهور پیشین آمریکا درباره اشغال عراق در سال 2003 و کاربردهای آن در آموزش زبان انگلیسی: رویکرد تحلیلی انتقادی گفتمان

This research has been conducted mostly on 15 speeches and what has been uncovered is far from full representation of G.W. Bush’s political ideology or his administration. Thus, it should not be generalized for all the political discourse by G.W. Bush.  However, this is hoped to provide basic foundation for an initial look into the political life of the power holders of the U.S. on the one hand and CDA analysis on the other.
     It is therefore advisable that more studies in the light of CDA be carried on to the extensions of some or all of these aspects, so that more comprehensive findings can be reached. Suggestions for further researches could be on the extention of time limit and data (i.e. all speeches and/or during a longer period of time) or extent of data to all the political discourses by the president. Also, research could be further developed on the relationship between power and ideology as represented to different audiences. The study can also just focus on one aspect of discourse at a time (just vocabulary, voice, modals,for instance) to yieled a  profound, detailed analysis on word use some persons.

Delving into EFL Teachers and Learners' Mindsets Regarding Teacher Effectiveness: A Movement towards Social Views of Teacher Effectiveness

The value of this research lies in the construction of a teacher effectiveness research instrument and in helping researchers and practitioners interested in this idea to employ the scale in the field of language learning. We have utilized exploratory factor analysis as an efficient tool for determining the underlying factors of the instrument. The results have revealed that seven factors represent the underlying structure of teacher effectiveness instrument.
It is our hope that future research will lead to further evaluation and improvement of this instrument. Researchers should continue to carry out thorough assessment of the psychometric properties of the instrument designed to measure teacher effectiveness. Only after the true factor structure of the teacher effectiveness instrument has been examined, can researchers confidently draw conclusions about the role of this variable in language learning. In the end, researchers are recommended to objectively examine the relationship between teacher effectiveness and other related variables, such as life skills, functioning in the labor market, etc.

Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire on Teacher Success
and
Digging into the Iranian EFL Teachers’ and Learners’ Conceptions of Teacher Success at Public Schools

       Researches are recommended to examine the relationship between teachers’ and students’ conceptions of student success. Besides, some other variables such as life style, social and economic status of the teachers and students, and their world view can be investigated.
       The most significant complication to research on teachers’ and students’ conceptions arises from the fact that they are the product of several interrelated factors many of which will hopefully soon be addressed if not resolved.
       Although implications of the results might be beneficial to identical contexts and populations, my participants is only a sample and it is by no means representative of the population of Iran or even that of the big city of Mashhad. The findings can be compared with those of other settings and cultures to arrive at a more global understanding.
       Further researchers are recommended using a longitudinal survey to explore if conceptions alter over time and whether or not level of proficiency influences students’ and teachers’ conceptions.

Risk Taking in English to Persian Translation Process by Novice Iranian Translators

Because of small samples, the conclusions of this study based on this data cannot be generalized without further studies. There are many possible ways in which the present study could be replicated, the most obvious of which would be to alter the variables in the following ways:
1. Use different text types    
2. Restrict the time for the experiments;
3. Restrict the use of external resources;
4. Use collaborative think-aloud protocols instead of individual translation protocols;
      5.   Use (a combination of) other research methods.
It would be interesting to see more work done for example to explore the relationship between creativity and risk in translation. Above all, this study is a good motivation for researchers working in the areas of translation process and risk taking to devise other creative ways to study these interesting and important issues, and translation teachers will be inspired to use some of these findings where it really matters in class. 

بررسی رابطه ی بین تشخیص نشانه های ایدئولوژیک متن و توانایی تفکر انتقادی در ارتباط  با کیفیت ترجمه دانشجویان رشته ی مترجمی ایران

This study had some limitations which may have affected the final results. These limitations can be modified in future studies in order to reach new and more reliable findings. Some suggestions can be made based on the scope and limitations of the present research which are listed below:
• Conduct a similar research using an English proficiency test to make sure all the participants have similar knowledge of English so that language proficiency variable is controlled.
• Conduct a similar research and control the gender and age variables
• Conduct a similar research on strategies of teaching how to think critically to the students of translation.
• Conduct a similar research on strategies of teaching how to draw out ideological representations in a text to the students of translation.
• Conduct a similar research to investigate which assignments help students to develop their critical thinking or critical analysis of discourse skills.
• Conduct a qualitative research to find out how the professional translators transfer ideological structures or words in their translation.
• Conduct a similar research on amateur and professional translators and compare their critical thinking ability.

ارتباط سیاست های آموزش زبان انگلیسی در ایران با بسندگی زبانی و کارآمدی دبیران زبان انگلیسی

The findings of the present study show that the English language policy as a cognitive domain does not relate significantly to the English language proficiency of G3SHS teachers as the most important ability taught at higher education centers. The lack of significant relationship might be attributed to its largely political or idealistic nature. The educational irrelevancy of policy as a domain is reflected in three of its genera, i.e., International Interaction, Internationalizing Native Culture, and International Understanding. Few, if any, of the English language teachers who took part in this study have had the opportunity to interact with people from other countries so that they could resort to their English language proficiency to understand them and thus internationalize their native culture.
 The lack of any significant relationship between the English language proficiency and English language policy as one of the main findings of this study calls for setting realistic policies on the part of designers. For example, Khodadady, Arian, and Hossein Abadi (2013), did not provide their readers with any English language policies officially set by organizations involved in secondary and higher education in Iran, indicating that there is practically none to guide English language teachers in their pursuit of proficiency. It is therefore suggested that a separate study be designed to ask the English language teachers themselves what policy they follow in their own teaching.
 Alternatively, it is suggested the ELPI be administered with other types of language proficiency tests such as C-tests and S-Tests to explore the relationship between the domains of language policy and proficiency. While the TOEFL is developed on the componential theory of language, the C-tests and S-Test derives their rationale from microstructural approach of schema theory (Khodadady, 2013b). Since the comprehension of the ELPI on the part of participants also requires processing its constituting schema types, a different pattern of relationships might be found between English language policy and proficiency. These future findings may be enriched by employing subjective measures of English language proficiency such as International English language Testing System (IELTS).

نقد بین فرهنگی نظریه گرایس

This study has some limitations which demand further studies and clarifications. First of all, for testing the universality of Grice’s cooperative principle, it was limited to one speech act i.e. compliment response, which is too limited to reach a firm conclusion about dysfunction of the theory in Farsi language, hence the theory needs to be studied in relation to other speech acts to provide more insightful understanding and avoid biased judgments.
Secondly, in order to justify the differences existed between English and Farsi speakers regarding Grice’s theory, the researcher relied on two dominant theories in cross-cultural studies i.e. Individualism/collectivism and High context/Low context which themselves seem to be rooted in Anglo culture, so it

یافتن رابطه بین پنج خصوصیت اصلی شخصیتی معلمان زبان انگلیسی و خودانگاره  شان

Regarding  the  limitations  of  the  present  study,  further  research  is  indeed  required to explore if similar results can be obtained. Moreover, the generalization of the results should await other related research with bigger samples in various L2 contexts.
Data of this study were gathered through questionnaires. Even though the two questionnaires employed are two of the most widely used ones throughout the world, the validity of data gathered by questionnaires are always under question since they cannot provide precise information about underlying features of the participants. It is also recommended that future research use interviews or other more qualitative instruments in order to validate the results of the questionnaires by providing the opportunity for the participants to state their idea about the issue under investigation rather than being restricted to a set of prepared questions.
This study was carried out amongst schools' and institutes' language teachers, yet the university teachers can be good areas for investigating this relationship.
In accordance with the above relation, i.e. personality types and self-concept, Gardner (2000) asserts that an interactional model is needed to understand fully the processes that are involved in second language learning. Specifically, he supports the use of an interactional model that includes measures of individual differences in motivation, aptitude, attitudes, and affective functioning, as well as the influences of various classroom and environmental factors. So, taking the above issues into consideration, it can be concluded that there still exists a need for more empirical research to uncover more the relationship between personality types and self-concept in order for coming to a clear understanding of the above relationship and also of teachers’ individual differences.

 آموزش راهبردهای فراشناختی و ارتباط آن با اشتیاق به خواندن به زبان انگلیسی در بین دانشجویان رشته پزشکی

The participants of this study were medical students. It might be useful to conduct further studies that include different ESP contexts and learners with different proficiency levels to check whether these factors play a role in alterations of attributions considered as variables in this study. The method of data gathering used in this study was through questionnaires. It will be useful to use other methods proposed by researchers such as interviews. Also, replicating this study in which the students of the control and experimental groups are taught by the same teacher may further improve the results. In addition, proposing and testing different models with different hypothesized paths between variables specially in foreign language context will help researchers to investigate the relationship between variables more deeply and have a better understanding of how they work.

Cultural exophoric references in English textbooks used at Iranian public high schools and private institutes: A comparative discursive study of the degree of referential burden

In light of the insufficiency of the present study, some suggestions are proposed for future research. First, among many coursebooks used in private English institutes, only one coursebook has been used in the present study. It is recommended that future research can compare other coursebooks with public English coursebook. Second, since private English institutes provide English learning medium in Iran, their coursebooks can be compared with each other to find out which of them impose a greater referential burden on EFL learners. Another area of research that can be attempted is comparing and computing other types of cultural exophoric references such as reference to foreign cultures.

بررسی امکان اتکاء بر عامل فرامتنی پیشگفتار با تأکید بر مستقیم یا غیر مستقیم بودن ترجمه و اهمیّت موضوعی و محتوایی اثر: موردپژوهی ترجمه‏های فارسی آثار گابریل گارسیا مارکز

این تحقیق بر آن بود تا عامل فرامتنی پیشگفتار را در ترجمه‌های فارسی آثار مارکز بررسی کند تا روشن شود در انتخاب اثر مطلوب خواننده می‌تواند به اطلاعاتی که در آن موجود است اطمینان کند یا خیر. به دلیل اینکه در این پیشگفتارها مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم بودن ترجمه و اهمیت موضوعی و محتوایی اثر بیشتر از موضوعات دیگر مطرح شده بود، این تحقیق میزان اتکاء بر این دو مورد را بررسی کرد.
پژوهشگران با بررسی‌های آماری می‌توانند میزان اتکاء به مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم بودن ترجمه را از جانب خوانندگان مورد مطالعه قرار دهند. یکی از روش‌هایی که می‌تواند در این راستا مفید واقع شود دسترسی به شمارگان و میزان فروش ترجمه‌های مستقیم و غیرمستقیم این آثار از طریق تماس با ناشران است.
همچنین با استفاده از مصاحبه و پرسشنامه می‌توانند بررسی کنند خوانندگان در انتخاب اثر موردنظر، چقدر به پیشگفتار آثار مراجعه می‌کنند و از اطلاعات آن بهره مند می‌شوند.
مطالعات دیگر می‌توانند به بررسی عوامل فرامتنی تأثیرگذار دیگری، مانند طراحی روی جلد  بپردازند تا دریابند در نشر ترجمۀ اثری طی چندین سال، ناشر طراحی روی جلد را چگونه تغییر داده است.
چون در ایران جای پژوهش در زمینۀ عملکرد ناشران و مترجمان در بازار کتاب بسیار خالی است، پژوهش‌های بسیاری در زمینۀ عوامل فرامتنی می‌توان انجام داد.

آسيب ويژه ء نحوي زبان: مطالعه اي در يادگيري زبان دوم

The limitations of the current study demands the provision of general outline for the future research studies:
1. Implementing test of Passive/active structure using on-line processing comprehension methods.
2. Conducting the research in other major cities where larger population of participants is accessible.
3. Statistically designed methodology.
4. And finally attesting the validity of the Minimalist-based theories other than representational deficits of dependent relations (RDDR).

رابطه بین شخصیت و نوع بازخورد معلم با خود کارآمدی زبان آموزان

Every scientific inquiry opens new directions for further research. Some of the parameters by which research in this domain may be continued are as follows: First,  other researchers’ interested in the interplay between EFL teachers’ personality traits and feedback profile can carry out more research projects to delve into this matter in formal as well as informal language education contexts. Second, teachers’ pedagogical effectiveness may be a factor affecting (and of course, being affected) by their choice of feedback, which may be interesting topic for further research.

بررسی رابطه بین منبع کنترل رفتار و عقاید زبان آموزان ایرانی  درباره یادگیری زبان

This thesis presents only a preliminary and exploratory inquiry into the impact of LOC on the belief systems of foreign language learners. In fact, there are no earlier studies to refer to and compare the results of second and third questions with them. However, consideration of results from this study and other studies concerning language learners' beliefs leads the present researcher to suggest thatalthough language learning beliefs are complex and multidimensional, they are mostly universal. In other words, learners of different languages in different cultures hold rather similar sets of beliefs about language learning.Kern's (1995) and Nikitina & Furuoka's (2006) findings are corroborated by the current study.
The findings of this research lend support to the proposition that beliefs are complex and multi-faceted in nature and apart from LOC, multiple social, cultural, contextual, cognitive, affective, and personal factors can be responsible for the shaping and strength of language learners' beliefs (for a review, see Bernat & Gvozdenko, 2005). Therefore, it is worth noting that differences between learners' beliefs may not be necessarily LOC bound as other factors may influence the nature of foreign language learners and it is difficult to exclude any other factors likely to contribute to the dimensions of the specific relationship under study.
More research with larger number of participants and more reliable methods of data collection is needed in this area to further elucidate the nature of language learners' beliefs in relation to personality traits and in particular, to determine to what extent (if at all) LOC plays a role in shaping learners' beliefs.
Dewaele (2005) points out that first and foremost, the outcome of any research will depend on the population involved in the research. Participants in this study are adults in MA level enrolled in three different universities where the researcher had access to them. They cannot, therefore, be representative of other populations in terms of linguistic background, age, and ability, among other variables. In fact, more varied samples of participants representing a wide variety of populations, contexts, majors and age groups would strengthen the validity of findings obtained by quantitative studies. Due to sample-related constraints such as the small size of population and sampling method and context specificity, no attempt is made to generalize the findings of this study beyond the sampled population. However, general trends can be found through replicated studies across various contexts and populations.
Moreover, despite the fact that BALLI is able to reflect students’ perspectives on language learning and offer useful insights for language teaching pedagogy, the inclusion of qualitative measures such as open-ended questions or in-depth interviews to the instrument could be considered for future studies. As Bernat and Gvozendko (2005) assumed, while quantitative research methods provide clarity and precision through the use of well-designed questionnaires and descriptive statistics can include a large number of learners and afford them anonymity, they are not without limitation. The beliefs examined by questionnaires are only those identified  by the researcher and learners may have ideas not included in the questionnaire. Furthermore, a construct as intellectually complex as personal belief system, cannot be fully captured by responses to a set of questionnaire statements (Weinstein, 1994).
It can be concluded that learners arrive at the task of language learning with definite preconceived ideas of how to go about it. Additionally, in terms of pedagogical implications, research about language learners' beliefs, identification of their beliefs and reflection on their possible effect on language learning process could be insightful for all “Insiders” (learners, teachers, teacher-trainers, materials developers, researchers, etc.). It can inform syllabus designers, curriculum developers and teachers' practices and as Wenden (1986b) pointed out, leads to their increased awareness and possibly adjustment of misinformed expectations.
As Matsumoto (1996) stated, “learners do not usually voluntarily reflect upon their own learning processes” (p.147). The value of this reflection lies in the fact that they: become researcher analyzing, evaluating, and possibly modifying their own language learning beliefs and strategies; look at themselves more objectively and free their minds from preconceptions; become more receptive to approaches to learning that are different from their own (Wenden, 1986a).
On the other hand, the large body of research indicates that language learners with internal orientation of locus of control achieve greater academic success. Reflection upon language learning develops learners’ metacognitive skills and consequently allow them to have more control over their learning (Wenden, 1986a).
This study was an attempt  to establish a possible relationship between learners' beliefs about language learning and one of the dimensions of their personality traits, that is LOC. It seems premature, because of the low correlation and above mentioned limitations of the study, to conclude the existence of such a relationship. Further research, regarding alternative contextual, methodological, and population variables, are required to fill the current paucity in literature on the impact of such  individual difference factors as LOC and others on beliefs about language learning.

بررسی تاثیر روش تکلیف- محور بر مهارت درک مطلب دانش آموزان دوره راهنمایی

The findings of the present study, from a pedagogical point of view, pave the way for EFL teachers to manipulate language components and to design tasks that enhance reading comprehension. A task, as Ellis (2003) puts it, "is a powerful construct for designing courses" (p. 79) so the findings of the present study may be conducive for syllabus designers in the sense that they can use the tasks as units to organize materials for reading comprehension. This can be applicable, as the results of this study suggest, by designing interesting and attractive tasks, such as those employed in this study, instead of less engaging activities. This matter is significant when learners are at the beginning levels of language learning. The lack of such tasks, especially in Iranian English language textbooks, could be one of the major reasons for the demotivation of students in learning language. For the sake of reading comprehension, designing tasks which interactively engage learners' interest, such as creative product reading texts or sequencing tasks in such a way that facilitate reading comprehension would be helpful.
The present study did not examine the participants' opinions about their experience in learning English through using the tasks. These viewpoints could certainly have given valid and reliable insights to the researchers to fairly judge, discuss, and draw conclusions on the findings of the study. Thus, it seems necessary for future study to provide a structured interview process for the above purposes.

بررسی وضعیّت کنونی ترجمه و نشر آثار ادبی کودکان از انگلیسی به فارسی در ایران
گروه سنّی ب و ج

در این پژوهش تمرکز بر آثار کنونی ترجمه‌شده برای کودکان بوده است لذا ضمن انجام مصاحبه‌ها با مترجمان حرفه‌ای معلوم شد بعضی از این افراد به عنوان صاحب‌نظران رشته ترجمه ادبیّات کودک، هر کدام صاحب سبک خاصّی در انتخاب آثار کودک و نوجوان و ترجمة آن هستند لذا بررسی سبک ترجمه و آثار ترجمه‌شده توسط مترجمان برگزیده کشور می‌تواند موضوع تازه‌ای جهت پژوهش در زمینه ادبیّات کودک و ترجمه آن باشد.
این پژوهش با تأکید بر جنبه‌های کیفی انجام شده است امّا می‌توان تحقیقات مشابهی در این زمینه و با تأکید بر جنبه‌های کمّی انجام داد. جمع‌آوری آمار وسیع‌تر در سطح کشور و از تمامی استان‌ها می‌تواند قطعیّت بیشتری به یافته‌های این پژوهش بدهد. همین‌طور جمع‌آوری آمار تألیف و ترجمه آثار کودکان در ده سال اخیر می‌تواند روند رشد و افت ترجمه را بهتر نشان دهد.
بررسی اکثریّت جنسیّتی مترجمان ایرانی در ترجمه آثار کودک و تأثیر آن در نوع انتخاب آثار جهت ترجمه برای کودکان و نوجوانان در کشور، موضوع مهم دیگری است که قطعاً در محتوای انتخابی آثار تأثیرگذار است و در پژوهش فعلی جای آن خالی است.
می‌توان بررسی کرد که آیا ترجمه ادبیّات کودک برای اقوام مختلف ایرانی مثل کرد یا ترک‌زبانان و یا سایر گویش‌های کشور به همان شکل انجام می‌شود که در پایتخت اتّفاق می‌افتد یا برای کودکان در اقوام مختلف باید تمهیدات متفاوتی در نظر گرفت.

The Impact of High/low Power Posing on EFL Learners’ Moods and Their Perceptions of Class Activity

As reviewed in this study, the studies to date have not given enough attention to how physical postures and gestures may facilitate language learners’ emotional states in a language classroom. Rossberg-Gempton and Poole (1993) found out that in comparison with males, females experienced a greater increase in unpleasant emotions when assuming a closed posture. Future research projects, however, need to be conducted to find out whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to female learners, too, and whether they bear any same significant impact on learners of higher educational levels as well as skills such as writing and reading, to name a few.
One participant reported that he had felt tired and helpless after one of low-power posture sessions. This suggests that further research needs to be conducted to investigate to what extent these impact last. Moreover, some mood changes are dependent on one’s characteristic personality traits emphasizing that in future studies, researchers need to take participants’ personality traits into account, too.
The literature has also shown that combinations of bodily postures and facial expressions led to more powerful feelings of the corresponding emotional feelings Flack et al., 1999; Duclos et al., 1989). People usually express their feelings and moods through facial expressions and consistent bodily postures as well as vocal expressions and gestures (Flack et al., 1989). For this reason further studies need to be done in the realm of language learning and teaching to investigate the impacts of combination of facial expressions and bodily postures on EFL learners’ moods and class activity. Moreover, power posing practices need to be investigated for their potential clinical application in learners’ mood disorders.

تاثیر برون فکنی اندیشه به عنوان یک روش تدریس خواندن بر درک مطلب دانش اموزان راهنمایی : بررسی تاثیر موفقیت در درک مطلب بر خودکارامدی دانش اموزان در خواندن متون انگلیسی

Since the idea of Think-aloud and modeling as instructional tools are relatively new concepts, it presents many opportunities for other studies and action research. It may also be possible to use these procedures in other areas. For example, Think-Aloud can be used as an instructional tool for teaching grammar. It can also present opportunities for other researchers to investigate the effect of peer modeling, and can present some studies in which the researcher can compare the traditional methods of teaching reading strategies versus thinking aloud and modeling as an instructional tool for teaching these strategies.

Exploring the Relationship between
 Parenting Styles and English Achievement
 Of Grade One Senior High School Female Students:
A Schema- Based Approach

This study was conducted with only female G1SHS students. It needs to be done with male G1SHS students as well to find out whether parenting domain and its three genera relate to their English language achievement as they did with those of female students. The study also needs to be replicated with students at grades two, three and four at senior high schools because research findings show that the schemata change as a result of students’ personal experiences in various contexts as do the species and genera of which they form a part.
 Khodadady, Fakhrabadi and Azar (2012), for example, showed that teacher effectiveness as a cognitive domain consists of eight genera, i.e., Qualified, Social, Stimulating, Organized, Proficient, Humanistic, Self-Confident, and Lenient, for G3SHS students when it is measured by ELTAS. The number of genera did, however, increase to eleven when Khodadady and Dastgahian (2015b) administered the ELTAS to 1483 G4SHS students, i.e., Qualified, Social, Proficient, Humanistic, Stimulating, Organized, Pragmatic, Systematic, Prompt, Exam-Wise, and Lenient, indicating that more genera is derived from the same domain when it is evaluated with students at a higher educational grade.
 And it is finally suggested that the parenting domain and its genera be related to English language achievement by employing objective tests such as S-Tests (Khodadady, 2009, 2012, 2013). Examinations such as the FEE are subjective because the scores obtained on these tests depend on the scorer. S-Tests are, however, developed on schemata comprising the texts and their answers are specified before they are administered. Research findings show that subjective and objective measures of language achievement reveal varying degrees of relationship with variables such as teacher effectiveness.
 Khodadady and Dastgahian (2015b), for example, reported a correlation coefficient of .15 (p<.01) when they correlated G3SHS students’ performance on the ELTAS with their self-reported scores on their final English examination. Khodadady and Dastgahian (2015a), however, administered the 90-item S-Test designed by Khodadady and Ghergloo (2013) to 440 of 1483 G4SHS with whom the ELTAS had been validated and found no significant relationship between teacher effectiveness and English language achievement (r = -.09, ns). They did, however, find a significant but negative relationship between the two when they correlated the tailored 39-item S-Test with the ELTAS (r = -.11, p<.05), indicating that subjective examinations are contaminated with traits which have nothing to do with English language achievement.

تأثيرپذيری رمان‌های جنايی تأليفی از رمان‌های جنايی ترجمه‌شده در ايران

تحقیقات اندکی در مورد ادبیات عامه‌پسند در ایران انجام شده است. به نظر نگارنده، نیاز به بررسی کلی ادبیات عامه‌پسند و جزئی هر یک از ژانرهای عامه‌پسند مانند ژانر جنایی، رمانتیک، ماجراجویانه و غیره به شدت در ایران احساس می‌شود. نگارنده سعی در بزرگ جلوه دادن ادبیات عامه‌پسند نداشته و ندارد اما در تمامی ملل، کتب عامه‌پسند در کنار دیگر کتب منتشره مورد نقد و ارزیابی قرار می‌گیرند چرا که شناخت این آثار به شناسایی ساختار کلی جامعه و نقاط ضعف و قوت فرهنگی مردم کمک می‌کند و چنین مهمی تاکنون در ایران مورد توجه قرار نگرفته است.
نگارنده تنها داستان‌های بلند جنایی را مورد بررسی قرار داده است. اما با توجه به این‌که در طول انجام این تحقیق با داستان‌های کوتاه بسیاری روبرو گردیده که پیشنهاد می‌شود به‌طور مجزّا مورد تحلیل و بررسی قرار گیرند. قطعاً تحقیق در زمینه‌ی داستان‌های کوتاه جنایی نیز نتایج درخور توجهی را به دنبال خواهد داشت.

تاثیر آموزش فعالیت محور بر افزایش مهارت صحبت کردن انگلیسی و هوش هیجانی  زبان آموزان ایرانی سطح متوسط

Every scientific enquiry opens new directions for further research. Some of the parameters by which future investigations in this domain may be continued are as follows:
First, in the present study, age and gender of participants were not taken into account. Moreover, only EFL learners at the intermediate level participated in the study and beginners and advanced learners were not considered. Consequently, further studies are needed to take the effect of these variables into account.
Second, the researcher of this study only investigated the effect of TBLT on speaking ability of Iranian EFL learners. It is engrossing to conduct a study investigating the effect of TBLT on other language skills and sub-skills.
Next, the context of this study was only one English language institute and it is recommended that the replication of this study be done in other language institutes, schools, and universities with a larger population.
Future directions for research in this area would be to survey the role of task-based approach in language testing.
Last but not least, the subject of future investigation can focus on the impact of different task types on learners’ language proficiency and emotional intelligence

The Effects of Multiple Intelligences (Focus on Linguistic, Musical, and Visual) and Direct Instruction on Learning Grammar:                                      A Case of Elementary EFL Iranian Students

        Based on the findings of the current study, the following suggestions may seem beneficial and merit attention.  The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of multiple intelligences (focus on visual, musical, and linguistic) and direct instruction on Iranian EFL students’ learning grammar at elementary level. 
   Besides, this study was done on only 61 EFL students so future researches are needed to be done on more learners.
   In addition, only three kinds of multiple intelligences have been considered in this study, so it is important to note that other kinds of multiple intelligences are important to be taken into account.
   Another suggestion is that this study was done only at elementary level, so it would be a great idea if the future researches will do the same study on other levels.
    According to the accessibility of the classes to the present researcher, this study was carried out just on females, so it should be noted that further researches can be done on males as well.  

Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in Persian and Exploring Its Relationship with the Emotional
 Intelligence of Students Majoring in

Based on the findings of this study several suggestions are made for future research. First, it needs to be replicated with a larger sample, e.g., 360 EFL students. Research findings show that the larger and more representative the sample, the more different the results become when they are compared to those with fewer participants. Moafian and Pishghadam (2008), for example, designed a questionnaire and administered it to 250 participants. The factorial analysis of their responses resulted in the extraction of 12 factors. Khodadady (2012), however, administered the same questionnaire to 1469 EFL learners and extracted five latent variables.
 Secondly, the RMET is suggested to be revised. It consists of 77 mental states. It measures the test takers’ ability to recognize just 32. The measurement of more mental states might yield results partially or totally different from those obtained in this study. The researcher, however, acknowledges that designing a more comprehensive pictorial measure of SQ will be quite challenging, requiring support from organizations having funds allocated for research purposes. Employing colourd photos is particularly emphasized because most participants were asking why the photos were black and white.
 And finally, the RMET needs to be administered along with other measures addressing the most urgent variables of interest in applied linguistics. Its administration with the English Language Teachers’ Attribute Scale (ELTAS) is particularly suggested because EFL teachers play an indispensible role in helping students learn the EFL. Khodadady, Fakhrabadi, and Azar (2012) and Khodadady and Dastgahian’s (2015a, 2015b) showed that the scale is sensitive to students’ educational level and relates their English achievement to the domain of teacher effectiveness and its constituting genera significantly.

  

 

Animated-Bullet-DiamondBlueDark 1392                                                                                                            bazgasht

 

 

عنوان پایان نامه

پیشنهادهای پژوهش

رابطه میان خودکارامدی و موفقیت معلمان زبان انگلیسی در دبیرستانهای ایران

More research using the TSES is needed for comparison purposes. As a subject-specific approach in measuring TSE in EFL context, the present study has the limitation that results cannot be generalized beyond its research participants due to the sampling method. Thus, more studies with different samples would provide useful information in understanding the current levels of Iranian high school teachers’ confidence in teaching English. It is recommended to replicate this study with big samples of different high school teachers of different demographics from urban and suburban school districts. Additional studies would provide comparative information concerning the relationships of English teaching efficacy with teacher effectiveness as well as a larger area for which findings can be generalized.
The present study has indicated that TSE in teaching English is a multi-faceted construct that is highly context-specific. Thus, it is recommended to conduct research that can provide information about how contextual factors such as kind of given task, student characteristics, moment of the teaching situation, and social expectation influence one’s efficacy levels. Both quantitative (see Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2007) and qualitative methods (see Milner & Woolfolk Hoy, 2003) will be welcome for this purpose. Much research is needed to investigate how one’s English teaching efficacy is formed (c.f., Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2007), more importantly, what criteria do the teachers have in mind when they express their self-efficacy level. The present study has found that self-efficacy was a significant predictor for teaching effectiveness. Yet, it remains unanswered through precisely what process self-efficacy contributes to one’s effectiveness in teaching English. With respect to this, future research can focus on the four sources of efficacy beliefs, namely mastery experiences, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological arousals (Bandura, 1997; Labone, 2004).
With the growing number of studies that have shown self-efficacy to be a powerful variable in instructional effectiveness, it is important to thoroughly investigate the many variables within the context of the school that are able to impact that efficacy. As studies have shown, teachers’ personal beliefs regarding their ability to affect student achievement may be responsible for the variance in teacher effectiveness (Berman & McLaughlin, 1977). For this reason, teachers’ must possess a strong self-efficacy that will allow them to lead students to academic gains. While some teachers may acquire a strong self-efficacy during their teacher preparatory programs, others may not realize their self-efficacy until they have their own classroom. Even still, others will enter with a weak self-efficacy.
Teachers must be provided with opportunities to experience success, feel that they are supported, and be knowledgeable of the latest instructional strategies and tools. This opportunity will allow those who already feel efficacious to validate that belief. Those who need guidance to strengthen their self-efficacy will be able to use the opportunities to do just that.
 “Great things are accomplished by talented people who believe they will accomplish them

t he Relationship between Job Satisfaction and EFL Teacher Motivation in Mashhad Language Institutes

The following recommendations were made on the basis of the result of the study.
Many other studies can be related to the same topic. So that other factors other than ages and motivational factors are taken in to account, too. The same study can also be replicated so as to obtain more accurate results.
The same research can be done with more participants and a more representative sample so that more accurate results can be obtained. The questioners could be given to school teachers to see their ideas, whether they have the same ideas or not.
 Further research in this area may further examine a variety of interesting issues-not only the institute teachers but also the school teachers too. For example what is the effect of teacher motivation and their job satisfaction on students' actions? Do satisfied teachers become more successful teachers? Do satisfied teachers help students have higher achievement?

An Investigation into the Role of Ambiguity Tolerance and Cultural Identity in Iranian EFL Learners’ Academic Language Achievement

     Further research could be done using the standardized test for measuring learners’ proficiency in language skills.
     Moreover, further investigations are needed to discover the learning strategies which more tolerant learners use, then teaching them to low tolerant learners to improve their ambiguity tolerance level which leads to a higher language proficiency, in turn.
     Also, some studies are needed to be carried out with the purpose of discovering the personality types of high tolerant learners, like being field dependent/independent, and help learners move towards possessing these personality types in order to feel more tolerant and comfort in confrontation with ambiguities.
     As cultural identity is a complex human characteristic, the results may have been under the affect of learners not being aware enough of their cultural identification, thus the results are generalizable to the similar contexts with some caution. The suggestion is that, the same study be replicated using other research methods, including diary writing in which learners comment in more details on how learning English has affected their cultural identity.
     Other studies need to be conducted using AIWQ, in different learning situations, for e.g., private institutes, to see how much their results are in line with the results of the current study. Moreover, it can provide valuable results to do other studies using a newly designed reliable and valid scale, with a bidemensional perspective to cultural identity.
     In addition, as cultural identity is a complex human characteristic and identity is not fix, but changes across time and situations, it can be worthy to do some longitudinal case studies investigating cultural identity changes in Iranian language learners.

The Relationship among Fluid Intelligence, Field Dependence/ Independence            Cognitive Styles, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Learners

The results of the present study can guide educators and researchers to continue exploring the ways individuals’ field dependence/independence (FDI) and their (Gf) affect their language proficiency; moreover, it will assist test designers and material developers to provide rather fair material.
A replica of this study could be done covering some other variables such as age, sex, level of proficiency, socio-cultural background, and economic status, etc.
The same study could be repeated in other contexts such as EFL institutes, guidance or high schools, etc.
This study was conducted in an EFL context; a similar one could be done in an ESL context.
The tailored version of the TOEFL was used as a measurement of language proficiency in this study; another study could be conducted using other international English proficiency tests.
The same study with a larger sample would be fruitful if the findings are to be generalized.
Another study could be done in regard to the effect of learners’ Gf and field dependence/independence cognitive style on their speaking abilities.
A replica of this study could be done in a wider scope by dividing the participants’ proficiency levels into high intermediate and low and study their relationships with Gf and cognitive styles.
A similar study could be done on the relationship between learners’ fluid intelligence and different test formats.
Another area for research could be analyzing the performance of FDI individuals on other intelligence tests that measure other kinds of intelligence such as multiple intelligence, etc.

An Investigation into the Influence of Power of Goal Choice and Self-Efficacy on Motivation and Writing Achievement: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners

Every scientific enquiry opens new directions for further research. Some of the parameters by which research in this domain may be continued are as follows: First, this study was limited to a group of students taking a writing course at Ferdowsi, Khayam, and Imam Reza Universities in Mashhad, Iran. Hence, the results may need to be used cautiously and it is thoroughly recommended that further research be carried out in this realm.
    
Second, the researcher of this research has used General and English self-efficacy scales to measure the participants’ self-efficacy and to assess the possible association of those scales with students’ writing. It is engrossing to conduct a study using writing self-efficacy scale on the association between the same scale and learners’ writing performance in the same context. 
     
Future directions for research in this area would be to survey a larger sample of students and to expand the scope of the study to more courses and to other universities in Iran. In addition, future research should include other possible factors that might affect the final results such as students’ age, major, how learning environment or culture affects motivation, self-efficacy, and studentschoice of goals.
    
Last but not least, the subject of future investigations can focus on the effectiveness of the power of choice of proximal goals for different types of students. For different types of students, research could be done for different student ages, such as high school students.
    
At the end, the findings of this study merit replication and have implications for the individuals concerned in Iranian TEFL.

An Exploration of the Interrelationships Among Iranian EFL Learners’ Test-Taking Strategy Use, English Self-Efficacy, Metacognitive Awareness, and Their Test Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

The participants for this study were all at intermediate level. It might be useful to conduct a study that includes different proficiency levels to check whether this factor plays a role in alteration of attributions considered as variables in this study. The method of data gathering for test-taking strategy used in this study was through questionnaire. Data gathered through the questionnaire solely represented the number of strategies used by test-takers; in order to examine the quality of employed strategies it will be useful to use other methods proposed by researchers and mentioned in this study. In addition, proposing and testing different models with different hypothesized paths between variables specially in foreign language context will help researchers to investigate the relationship between variables more deeply and have a better understanding of how they work.

A Tripartite Model of Iranian EFL Teachers' Attributions, Burnout, and Self-Regulation: Towards the Prospects of Effective Teaching

 Given that this study is the first endeavor in EFL literature that examined these motivational constructs within a single framework, it can be deemed as a prelude to initiate other studies. Undoubtedly, the research agenda in this area is long, yet essential, if we want to explore the broad aspects and issues pertaining to EFL teachers' effectiveness.

5.6.1.
Determining the predictive and consequential validity of TAS
Since the results of this study provided initial evidence of the validity of TAS as a measure of EFL teachers' attributions, further research is needed to capture the predictive and consequential validity of the scale.


5.6.2.
Examining the role of socio-cultural factors in teacher attributions
In view of the fact that research indicated that attributions individuals make for their success or failure tend to be pancultural and individualized, further research should investigate the role of cultural, social, and religious values of teachers in their attributions. This can set the ground for the cross comparison of the findings among teachers in various cultures, with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, and with different religious affiliations and beliefs.

5.6.3.
Designing and implementing flexible reattribution training programs
The present study highlighted the significance of reattribution intervention programs. Prospect researchers are recommended to develop reattribution training programs based on existing models and then implement the programs in different teaching contexts and amongst teachers with different characteristics and backgrounds to see the effectiveness of these programs across different individuals and settings. This is expected to pave the way for accommodating the intervention programs for various personality groups and teachers with different backgrounds.

5.6.4.
Qualitative investigation of the model
In this study, the variables in question were assessed via questionnaires. Using qualitative approaches such as interviews, case studies, and observations to investigate these constructs would allow the prospect researchers to understand not only if potential interrelationships exist among the constructs, but also the processes by which these constructs develop in the classroom context

Dynamic Assessment in EFL Process Writing: An Examination of Hint-based Process Writing vs. Process Writing in a Hybrid Environment

Any Dynamic Assessment that includes an element of intervention depends on the quality of mediation provided by the mediator. It is also under the influence of sample selection, sample size, sample age, context of study, learners' proficiency level, learners' motivation, learners' needs, and the duration of the treatment.
A teacher, who employs DA, is needed to be an expert in this field to have superiority over the instruction, techniques, and provide feedback in order to mediate the learners appropriately. Therefore, it is suggested that before initiating a hint-based instruction, teachers or researchers have a good command of it. It should be noticed that the sample of this study was selected based on convenient sampling; so, the results of the present study are not generalizable to other contexts.
Since an interactionist approach to DA was employed in this study, and it is very time-consuming to interact with all the learners one-by-one in this approach, working with a large sample was troublesome. For this reason, the researcher selected a limited number of participants. It is suggested to work with large samples to find out whether this approach is efficient or not. Since learners with different ages prefer different kinds of instruction and strategies of learning, it is offered to employ this kind of instruction to various ages.
This study was conducted in an EFL context for intermediate university students of English. Other studies can be done in other contexts with upper or lower level students. The participants of the sample need to pass this course; so, learning the materials in order for getting good marks and passing the course is considered a kind of external motivation to them. Other research can shed light on the participants' learning with different motivations and needs. Last but not least, the time devoted to the treatment and long-term effects of this treatment on the learners were not considered. Further studies are required to investigate the long term effects of hint-based instruction on learners with devoting more time to mediate them.  

Determining the Underlying Constructs of the Home Culture Attachment Scale and Examining the Role of English Language Learning in Identity Changes of Iranian EFL Learners:
A Quantitative /Qualitative Study

Since in this study two analytical methods were used to substantiate and confirm the validity of this scale, it shows a great amount of validity. Therefore, researchers are recommended to examine objectively the relationship between HCAS scale and other related variables such as: language proficiency, age, gender, marital status, or academic degree. These variables seem to be related to home culture attachment. Moreover, the second phase of this study was conducted qualitatively using open interview as the only method of data collection; a longitudinal study using different methods of data collection including interview, diary, and observation can be done to see the behind-the-scenes of identity changes process among EFL learners. In addition, the effects of English language learning on learners’ identity can be explored quantitatively. Also, different demographic factors like gender, age, academic degree, and length of bilingualism can be involved in the process of identity changes among EFL learners.

Ideology in the Coverage of Syria Unrest by the BBC and Press TV: A Schema-Based Approach

.The purpose of the present study was to find the relationship between ideologies of the BBC and Press TV and their employed schemata on Syria issue. Overall 575 common schemata were identified in the whole corpus from which 24 semantic schemata were described in their related contexts of usage. To limit the scope of the present study, only some semantic schemata were analyzed. Common schemata analysis can further be extended to the description of syntactic and parasyntactic schemata especially pronouns, names and titles, especially key players in Syrian conflict, to have a more comprehensive view of the relationship between ideology and schemata in texts and talk.

Investigating Parameter Resetting by Persian Learners of English as a Foreign Language: the Case of That-trace effect

             The results of the present study leave many questions unanswered; however, a future research program is suggested to be devoted for exploring how constraint interactions between various levels of grammatical knowledge are used by learners in the acquisition of a second language. There is a clear need for future research in this area, perhaps beginning with further improvements on the research design used here, but also extending to the study of other language groups and other grammatical properties of UG principles and parameters. With the hope that this project has provided some new insights into interfaces between syntax and discourse in the acquisition of English learner grammars, and that these insights will lead to further investigations that will advance our understanding of second language acquisition.

Iranian EFL Learners’ Attitudes toward the Cinderella of Language Teaching, Construction and Validation of LATEP Scale:
 A Mixed-Method Study

It is our hope that future research will lead to additional evaluation and improvement of the LATEP scale. Thereby, further research in larger samples is recommended to improve the current instrument. Moreover, future studies should be carried out across different types of groups with learners of different L1 backgrounds, ages, and proficiency levels. In addition, since this study is the first of its kind, further in-depth investigations are required to mitigate its limitations and generalize its findings to other populations. Last but not least, several studies could be conducted using this scale to find its objective association with various pedagogical, psychological, sociocultural, and international variables.

Life-Wise ELT Profession: Operationalization of Applied ELT and Education for Life Paradigms through Devising an Emotional Intelligence-Enhancing Language Learning Syllabus

The following questions and suggestions for subsequent research arose from the findings:
Perhaps an intriguing area of research is to construct further chapters addressing other EI competencies including flexibility, independence, social responsibility, impulse control, assertiveness, and optimism as well. In our EILS, self-esteem, happiness, empathy, problem-solving, and stress management meta-factors were each treated one chapter long representing learners’ overall EI ability. An intervention program comprising a wider range of competencies will, beyond dispute, provide a better and more precise index of participants’ EI capability.
The study also lends itself well to a mixed method research design in that qualitative methods such as face-to-face interviewing with participants, portfolios assessment, journals writing, and conferences can also be integrated into the study. In this study, on account of administrative and practical limitations, the EQ-I inventory followed by an open-ended question were administered in the posttest session. By including other qualitative measures throughout the instruction, one can receive feedback, on a step-by-step fashion, from participants on the efficacy of the training program and on the effect they think it has had on their EI competency. There is no denying that such a triangulation of techniques can maximize the credibility and validity of the results.
While in this study current ELLTs were appraised holistically in terms of their prospective EI enhancement, future research may adopt an analytic approach. Developing a more detailed version of our EAS-ELLTs, future researchers could investigate if individual tasks, exercises, passages, and pictorial sections in these textbooks can contribute to the development of EI ability and, if so, of which sub-competencies. Identifying applicable exercises and passages can, most importantly, help the researchers add to and extend the EILS devised in this study and cater for a wider range of EI sub-skills than those covered by us.
Another area which merits further investigation concerns the language skills to be covered in future EI-enhancing syllabuses. In our EILS, writing, speaking, and reading skills together with vocabulary and structure were dealt with but, due to technical and financial considerations, listening practices and pronunciation were pretermitted. Future EI research studies are recommended to include tasks and activities serving this skill as well.
Moreover, future studies related to EI-enhancing programs need to examine pre- and post-intervention performances on larger and more diverse samples in order to assess the extent to which these programs help. Perhaps one of the limitations of the study was its limited number of experimental participants, which interested researchers may plan to remove.
EI is among the life skills which can serve a principal function in people’s lives in different settings. The line of inquiry, however, must not be limited to a single skill. Other life issues such as creativity, critical thinking ability, cultural awareness, and reasoning skills warrant future studies. Language education practitioners are then invited to analyze their current materials and textbooks in respect of any of the above capabilities and, based on the available theoretical and practical guidelines and instructions, incorporate or develop anew a body of practices and activities needed to foster the intended capability.
In closing, it is reasonable to assume that with having more EI-enhancing programs developed, studying more on the impact of EI on different life aspects, and educating more people to be emotionally intelligent, we can help build communities and societies which are more dynamic, productive, and humane.

Match or Mismatch of Teaching and Learning Styles on Language Achievement: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners.

The present study was  quantitative research relying on a sophisticated statistical method called SEM which explored the relationship between teaching and learning styles in the Iranian EFL context. This method is dependent on student's self -reports which may be complemented with qualitative methods. Therefore, further research can use qualitative methods like observation and interview.
A cross-cultural study that compares the Iranian EFL learning style preferences to those of learners from other cultural backgrounds would be beneficial in showing the cultural dimension of the inquiry and in examining how cultural identity shapes the way that students learn and perceive their learning.  Furthermore, the relationship between teaching styles and learning styles in other contexts may be a subject for research.
             Then, this study was carried out in the context of Mashhad, Iran; it would be of interest to find out if such findings of significance can be found in other learning environments. Finally, other researchers interested in this area may select more participants to obtain more extended data in order to use SEM to analyze them completely, so the results might be generalizable to all Iranian EFL learners.

Public  School  EFL  Teachers’  Perception  of Lockstep In-service  Development  Program in Khorasan Razavi: An  Analysis  of  Teachers’ Satisfaction, Expectation, and Professional Challenges

There are  other areas for further research which are not included in this study:
First, a study  can be  conducted on the analysis of  the EFL teachers’ opinions  of the textbooks. Educational  authorities should ask teachers to  give their suggestions in this regard.

Second, investigations in to factors leading to teachers de-motivation can be another  area  for  further research.

Third, analysis  of  content in  pre-service programs  can be another area  of research.

Forth, it  is  suggested  that  apart  from analyzing the context  of  EFL teachers, in data collection, interviewing  the  participants  and trainers  can  be very constructive. 

Role of  Teachers’ Self-Concept and Teaching Style in Predicting Their Burnout

Because of the limitations of this study, further research will be needed to test other explaining factors for burnout. Since the association between teaching style and burnout is an under- research area, replication of this study with larger population is of great importance to confirm or reject the findings. It also would be of great benefit to carry out research to detect the factors that contribute to institute teacher’s burnout more than school teachers through qualitative studies.
As teaching style is not a well-researched area, it is recommended to find out the association between teachers’ personality type and the teaching style they apply. Other research projects can be carried out to differentiate males and females tendency for adoption of particular styles.

The Effect of Schema-Vs-Translation-Based Instruction on 1rst Grade Persian Senior high school students' Learning of English

While the results of this study demonstrated the superiority of SBI over TBI in improving reading comprehension ability, It remains to be investigated whether furthur attempts at repeating the same research project in the same level would yield this superiority in vocabulary and structure knowledge of learners. Future research must show whether the SBI brings about any significant changes in learners’ oral communication.

The Effectiveness of Strategy-based Instruction in Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies

The current research study was an attempt to provide an insight of the implications of English SBI study samples. It is worth noting that like many secondary research studies, the comprehensiveness of the present study, the precision of the meta-analysis, is dependent on a population of primary single studies that are supposed to provide researchers with findings to the questions posed with regard to English SBI. The reflection on such attempts is among the responsibilities of the community of English language. To take this responsibility seriously, a synthetically oriented approach on the part of researchers is needed (see Norris & Ortega, 2006).
     Bearing this in mind,  the following suggestions for English SBI research are offered, many of which encompass previous suggestions for more general reform of EFL research efforts (see, e.g., N. C. Ellis; 2006;  Norris & Ortega, 2000, 2006; Plonsky & Gass, 2011):  first of all,  the value of English SBI depends  on  whether its effects last over time or not; few study samples in this meta-analysis included delayed posttests; thus, the need for more measurements of the persisting summary effects of English SBI is felt.
Second, more detailed explanations of treatment procedures and more meticulous reporting practices by researchers of primary studies can contribute more accurately to the current state of knowledge of English SBI.
Third, due to some statistically insignificant results, some primary researchers might lose their willingness to publish their efforts. Therefore, the availability of unpublished data, which indeed contribute to the reality of the English SBI effects, decreases. Therefore, primary researchers should be encouraged by the L2 community to seriously consider the contribution of their findings to secondary research and meta-analysis.
Finally, the heavy reliance on P-value and null hypotheses testing in the field of EFL has somehow misled the researchers from the right understanding. As seen in the review of the literature examples, some of the statistically significant studies revealed modest effect sizes while some insignificant ones revealed huge effect sizes. Therefore, the traditional null hypothesis can keep the researchers within a yes/no dichotomy whose legacy will be accompanied with a complete fallacy.

The Impact of Attending EFL Classes on the Level of Depression of Iranian Female Learners and Their Attributional Complexity

According to the students’ feedbacks and emotional reactions after taking BDI, its face and wording sounded too negative for them. They felt like the test wanted to impose negative ideas and feelings.  According to Sonderen, Sanderman and Coyne (2013), based on Tourangeau, Rips and Rasinski (2000) the process of obtaining survey data is complicated, with many possibilities of discrepancies arising between the state or opinion the researcher wants to elicit and the answer given by the respondent. For them as Paulhus (1991) claimed this discrepancy is usually called response bias. They also claim that based on Rorer (1965) and Weijters (2006) two main types of response bias are distinguished: response set and response style. It is believed that response set is considered as a bias related to the content of the items and response style as a tendency to answer items regardless of their content. For them the best known type of response set is social desirability, in which a person’s response is a function of the desirability of the response rather than its veracity
    In this manner, it is believed that the students had these two biases because of the negative wording and the personal and private nature of the test. Regarding this problem, the suggestion for further studies is to combine this form of quantitative research with a more qualitative one. Case studies are suggested to be done in order to gain a deeper understanding of the change regarding depression or other mental disorders.
   We faced a great deal of difficulty explaining why we were taking the tests from the language learners, albeit we tried to build a friendly relationship with the students, most of them felt uncomfortable and reluctant in taking the tests. We believe that in order for the students to give in to the teacher and reveal personal information honestly, we need to develop a strong relationship with the test takers as the test givers or even as the teachers.
   Additionally, it is believed that “starting the questionnaire with a rather forbidding set of personal background questions (as in passport application form) is off-putting and may also ring privacy alarm bells in the students. Such questions are best left to the end of the questionnaire” (Mackey & Gass, 2011, p. 78). This was considered one of the reasons why the students felt uncomfortable with taking the test. Other reasons may include political, social, or cultural influences which make the learners save their self-image. Further research might be on these factors and how we could control them. Duplications of the study are also needed in order to confirm the obtained results.
   Additionally, this study made use of the Persian back-translated version of attributional complexity scale. Further research could validate this scale for Iranian community for more accurate results. Furthermore, it is believed that due to the lack of linguistic ability of the learners, who had just started their English courses, a significant change in their attributional complexity did not occur. Future research might be on the effect of EFL classes on the learners’ attributional complexity for more advanced levels. Another important point to be mentioned is that duplications of the same study, and also of the study in which the teachers are all trained, are needed in order to gain more precise results.

The Relationship among Fluid Intelligence, Field Dependence/ Independence            Cognitive Styles, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Learners

The results of the present study can guide educators and researchers to continue exploring the ways individuals’ field dependence/independence (FDI) and their (Gf) affect their language proficiency; moreover, it will assist test designers and material developers to provide rather fair material.
A replica of this study could be done covering some other variables such as age, sex, level of proficiency, socio-cultural background, and economic status, etc.
The same study could be repeated in other contexts such as EFL institutes, guidance or high schools, etc.
This study was conducted in an EFL context; a similar one could be done in an ESL context.
The tailored version of the TOEFL was used as a measurement of language proficiency in this study; another study could be conducted using other international English proficiency tests.
The same study with a larger sample would be fruitful if the findings are to be generalized.
Another study could be done in regard to the effect of learners’ Gf and field dependence/independence cognitive style on their speaking abilities.
A replica of this study could be done in a wider scope by dividing the participants’ proficiency levels into high intermediate and low and study their relationships with Gf and cognitive styles.
A similar study could be done on the relationship between learners’ fluid intelligence and different test formats.
Another area for research could be analyzing the performance of FDI individuals on other intelligence tests that measure other kinds of intelligence such as multiple intelligence, etc.

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction
 and EFL Teacher Motivation in Mashhad Language Institutes

The following recommendations were made on the basis of the result of the study.
Many other studies can be related to the same topic. So that other factors other than ages and motivational factors are taken in to account, too. The same study can also be replicated so as to obtain more accurate results.
The same research can be done with more participants and a more representative sample so that more accurate results can be obtained. The questioners could be given to school teachers to see their ideas, whether they have the same ideas or not.
 Further research in this area may further examine a variety of interesting issues-not only the institute teachers but also the school teachers too. For example what is the effect of teacher motivation and their job satisfaction on students' actions? Do satisfied teachers become more successful teachers? Do satisfied teachers help students have higher achievement?

Construction and Validation of Translation Metacognitive Strategy Questionnaire and Its Application to Translation Quality

This study was both a quantitative and qualitative research to develop a standard questionnaire and also to apply this questionnaire to check whether there was a relationship between the participants’ application of metacognitive strategies and their translation quality. Here are some suggestions for further research:
1. The present study was conducted in three different universities. More investigation should be carried out in order to see whether similar results might be obtained from other settings.
2. Although the researcher strived to consider a large representative sample size (101 participants) for the study, a larger sample size will be more favorable and representative and more general results can be drawn.
3. A content analysis of the syllabi presently being used in the field of translation studies for practical courses of translation can also reveal a great deal of information.
4. This study focused on the relationship between participants’ application of metacognitive strategies and their translation quality. However, other related issues such as relationship between other learning strategies and translation quality at different universities can be considered.

Investigating the Integration of Translation Technologies into Translation Programs in Iranian Universities: Basis for a Syllabus Design in Translation Technology

The main focus of this study was to explore the possible ways of integrating translation technologies into the translator training programs in Iranian universities.  Data was collected to find an answer for the three research questions relating to this goal.  The collected data were analyzed and some significant findings obtained.  The findings, although significant, have some limitations.  One limitation is that only one small group of Iranian translation students were available for the purpose of focus group interview.  Conducting more interviews with translation students coming from a varied selection of Iranian universities will yield much more information about familiarity with different translation technologies.  Another limitation is that due to time constraints and lack of access to more students for running a complete translation technology course, the students were introduced to a TM software for a short period of time; they were not able to master this software and use all of its features.  During these 8 sessions only the main features of the software were introduced and the students were not able to evaluate this software.  Future research can focus on introducing a full range of translation technologies or on teaching one of the market leading TM software such as SDL Traods Studio, in one or more full semester, with experimental and control groups.  Also, using case studies, future research can evaluate different TM software in order to identify the appropriate content for inclusion in Iranian translation programs.
In this study, the questionnaires were only distributed among translation students and recent graduates of Iranian translation programs.  Future research can replicate this phase of study and distribute the same questionnaire among professional translators to measure the level of their familiarity with translation technologies.
The results of the last phase of this study, the place and the extent of teaching translation technologies in world level translator training programs were used as insight into their inclusion in Iranian translation programs.  The study only focused on a limited number of programs that their curricula were available online.  The details of their translation technology courses were not examined.  Further research along these lines should use other data collection methods to get the detailed content of these courses and their objectives as insight to their inclusion in Iranian translation programs. 
Another avenue of research which was not addressed in this study is the familiarity of translation trainers with translation technologies.  The first step before introducing translation technologies into translation programs is to train teachers who are familiar with these technologies.  After determining the extent and place of these technologies in Iranian programs, translation teachers must be familiar enough with these technologies in order to meet the needs of Iranian students.  The lack of literature shows this area is under-researched and needs to be addressed urgently.

   On the Relationship between Field- Dependence/ Independence  Cognitive Style and Non-iterary/                       
    Literary Translation Achievement                                 

The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between students’ FDI cognitive style and their literary and non-literary translation quality. In this section some areas are suggested for further research.
The results of this study can guide researchers to continue exploring the different ways cognitive styles in general and FD/I cognitive style in particular can affect the performance of translation students or professional translators during the process of translating.  In order to generalize the inferences made from this study, more researches need to be done to reach a consensus on the results of the research. The same study needs to be replicated with larger number of participants and more raters for obtaining more accurate translation quality assessment. It can also be replicated using another group of translation students such as students from other universities in other cities. In this study the number of FD and FI participants was not equal. The number of FD subjects was fewer than FI ones. The results indicated that there is no significant correlation between FD cognitive style and literary and non-literary translation quality, the reason may be due to the small number of FD participants. Therefore, it is suggested that future researches conduct the same research by an equal number of FDs and FIs.  
In this study, gender difference was neglected; therefore other studies can take gender into account.
In the present study only a literary and a non-literary text was chosen for testing the translation production of students. The same study can be replicated using different kinds of non-literary texts such as technical, political, financial, etc. Another related study can investigate the role of FD/I cognitive style in the success of different translators such as technical translators, audio visual translators, translators of poems and song lyrics, interpreters and dubbers.
In order to make students more careful and pay more attention to their translation it is suggested that researchers take the translation production task as the students’ final exam. 
In further studies the researchers can consider the characteristics of the selected texts. It is suggested that researchers select some specific texts with specific characteristics by considering the distinction between FD and FI individuals.
In future research, researchers can select a new TQA model for better assessment of translation quality.
The same study can be replicated on some professional translators instead of students of translation.

Investigating Translation Strategies Used in Persian Dubbing of English Comedy Animations with Focus on Humorous, Idiomatic and Colloquial Expressions

Based on the limitations of this study the following are suggested for further research in this line of inquiry:
1. Investigating ideology in the dubbing of animations and movies from English to Persian.
2. Comparative investigations of translation strategies in animations form English to Persian and English to other languages to see the similarities among groups of translators with different languages and cultures.
3. Investigation of subtitling strategies in movies from Persian to English.

Reflections on Taught Courses of the Iranian MA Program in English Translation: A Mixed-Methods Study

The goal of this study was to investigate two strategic documents about the necessities of a curriculum for MA in English Translation as well as the opinion and assessment of two groups dealing with it the students and the lecturers.  However, other studies can be conducted investigating the opinion of translation agents about the necessary attributes they consider for a translator and their expectations of an employed translator with an MA degree in English translation to be included in the curriculum.
Further Studies can also be conducted on larger samples of students including a greater number of universities of the country to make the findings more generalizable.

Strategies for Translating Culture-Bound Items,
A Case Study of Two Translators

   Researchers can expand the domain of this study by applying the selected framework to more translations of the selected translators since the two translators have many works in different decades. This enriches the findings in this respect and can be used to make more deductions regarding cultural items. Also, the method of present study can be applied for other translators in working in different periods of time to shed light on the strategies used by different translators in tackling the problem of culture-bound items. Furthermore, the translations of the same book by different translators can be investigated to highlight the idiosyncrasies of each translator in his/her body of works. 

بررسی ارزیابی کیفیت ترجمه انگلیسی در دانشگاه های ایران: رویکردهای مدرسان ترجمه و بازخورد دانشجویان

 پیشنهاد می شود تا براساس معیارهایی که در این پژوهش مطرح شده است ترجمه دانشجویان مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد و پس از آن ارتباط میان جنسیت دانشجو با نمره ایی که در ارزیابی بر اساس این معیار های ارزیابی کسب کرده بررسی شود؟
• پیشنهاد می شود تا براساس معیارهایی که در این پژوهش مطرح شده است ترجمه دانشجویان مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد و پس از آن ارتباط ایی که میان سن دانشجو با نمره ایی که در ارزیابی بر اساس این معیار های ارزیابی کسب کرده اند بررسی شود؟
• پیشنهاد می شود تا معیارهای ارزیابی و رویکردهای گروه های دیگری مورد بررسی قرار گیرد، گروه های چون دانشجویان دکترای مترجمی زبان انگلیسی به این دلیل که این دانشجویان با تحقیقات علمی و عملی در زمینه ارزیابی کیفیت ترجمه آشنایی بیشتری دارند و می توانند معیارهای دقیق تری ارائه دهند و یا مدل ارزیابی کیفیت ترجمه ای پیشنهاد نمایند.
• پیشنهاد می شود که علاوه بر مصاحبه گروهی با دانشجویان ترجمه و مصاحبه با مدرسان ترجمه که در دو بخش کیفی این طرح به آنها پرداخته شد در پژوهش دیگری از طریق جمع آوری پرسشنامه از دانشجویان و مدرسان ترجمه داده بیشتری بتوان جمع آوری نمود و پژوهشی کیفی- و- کمی با روش مثلث گیری انجام داد.
• پیشنهاد می شود که در پژوهشی دیگر دو گروه از دانشجویان ترجمه در مقطع کارشناسی انتخاب گردند و در مدت  یک ترم به دو گروه آموزش ترجمه داده شود. در یک گروه مدرس ترجمه معیارهای ارزیابی خود را در ابتدای دوره بیان کند و در ابتدای آزمون ترجمه پایان ترم و میان ترم معیارهای ارزیابی خود را بار دیگر عنوان کند. در گروه دوم مدرس ترجمه دانشجویان را در ابتدای دوره آموزشی و در ابتدای آزمون ترجمه پایان ترم و میان ترم از معیارهای ارزیابی خود مطلع نسازد. در نهایت پس از ارزیابی ترجمه دانشجویان هر دو گروه میزان پیشترفت دانشجویان در عمل ترجمه مورد مقایسه قرار گیرد و برای کسب آگاهی از نظرات دانشجویان از معیارهای ارزیابی  مدرسان ترجمه مصاحبه گروهی از هر دو گروه به عمل آید و نتایج به دست آمده مورد مقایسه قرار گیرد.

بررسي ترجمه اخبار سياسي با رويكرد تحليل انتقادي گفتمان
بر اساس مدل سه وجهي

 تحقیق حاضر مبتنی بر تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی بر اساس مدل فرحزاد، در دو سطح متنی و نشانه  ای در ژانر خبر سیاسی بود. کمبود این گونه تحلیل انتقادی بر روی دیگر ژانرها همچون ژانر ادبی و ژانر علمی احساس می  شود. شایسته است تغییرات ایدئولوژیک احتمالی در ترجمه  ی این گونه ژانرها نیز مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.
- پیشنهاد می  شود ترجمه  ی اخبار سیاسی بر اساس دیگر الگوهای تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی مانند مدل  های ون دایک ، لاکلا و موفه و ... انجام شود.
_ این رساله بر روی ترجمه  ی اخبار سیاسی از زبان انگلیسی به زبان فارسی انجام شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل تغییرات ایدئولوژیک در ترجمه  ی اخبار از فارسی به انگلیسی نیز می  تواند موضوع تحقیق جداگانه  ای باشد.
_ موضوع این رساله تحلیل انتقادی ترجمه  ی اخبار سیاسی و راهبرد  های مترجمان معاصر فارسی بود. چون تاریخ به قول فرکلاف، یکی از مهم  ترین سازه  های تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی است. بررسی انتقادی ترجمه  ی اخبار سیاسی در گذشته و راهبرد  های اتخاذ شده مترجمان آن در نحوه  ی انتقال ایدئولوژی در ترجمه می  تواند گوشه-هایی از تاریخ ترجمه را روشن سازد.

بررسی راهکارهای انتقال مفاهیم تعجبی در ترجمه قرآن

با توجه به اینکه در بحث ترجمه قرآن کریم، انتقال مفهوم تعجب و شگفتی به خاطر القاى معنای صحیح آیات اهمیت بسیاری دارد، از این رو توجه بیشتر به این موضوع کاملا ضروری است. در این پژوهش فقط بر روی چهار مورد از اسلوبهای تعجب در آیات قرآن کریم بحث شد. پیشنهاد می شود سایر موارد بیان تعجب و نحوه انتقال آنها در ترجمه قرآن کریم به زبانهای فارسی و انگلیسی بررسی شود و نتایج حاصل از آن، در راهکارهای انتقال مفهوم تعجب با نتایج تحقیق حاضر مقایسه شود تا مشخص گردد آیا می توان این راهکارها را تعمیم داد یا خیر.

بررسی روش ترجمة مفعول مطلق تأکیدی
 در ترجمه  های اتگلیسی و فارسی قرآن کریم

یافته  های این تحقیق نشان داد مترجمان در دستیابی به ترجمة مطلوب و اثربخش در انتقال مفعول مطلق تأکیدی، باید آگاهی جامع و کامل از ساز و کار  های نحوی، واژگانی و ساختاری هر دو زبان داشته  باشند. از آنجا که مبانی و موضوعات زبانی متعدّد در هر زبان دایرة وسیعی از اطّلاعات لغوی، نحوی و بلاغی را می  طلبد، تحقیقات بنیادی در زمینة ترجمة قرآن کریم در حوزة مطالعات زبان  شناسی تطبیقی از ضروریات پژوهش  های قرآنی محسوب می-شود. مطالعات جامع و نظام  مند مبانی علمی و نظری زبان  شناختی در کار  گروه  های تخصّصی متعدّد راهبرد  های ترجمه  ای مناسب  تری را در ترجمة مقولات مختلف زبانی بررسی می  کند و فرآیند پروژة ترجمة قرآن کریم را تسریع و تسهیل می  سازد.
 چنانکه قبلاً گفته  شد مبحث تأکید در بلاغت و دستور زبان عربی مشتمل برموارد متعدّدی است، از جمله: تأکید لفظی و معنوی که هر کدام نیز زیر شاخه  های بسیاری دارد، مانند تأکيد به تکرار، تكرار عامل، تكرار ضمير، تكرار واج، تكرار استثناء، تكرار معنايى، تأکيد با قسم، بدل، عطف، وصف، حروف جر و حروف تأکيد یا استفاده از شيوه  های بلاغی گوناگون همانند عدول از فعل امر به استفهام، التفات، استفاده از اسم ظاهر به جای ضمير، عدول از جملة فعليّه به اسميّه، تقديم مسندٌاليه و... . به دلیل گستردگی هر یک از موارد ذکر شده و ساز و کار-های مختلف مترجمان در انتقال مفهوم هر کدام، در این تحقیق فقط به بررسی روش ترجمة مفهوم مفعول مطلق تأکیدی پرداخته شد. بنابراین، تحقیق در هر یک از موارد مذکور می  تواند در ترجمه  های آتی از قرآن کریم تأثیر  گذار باشد و در عرضة ترجمه  ای صحیح  تر و درخور شأن و مقام قرآن کریم و معانی بلیغ و بلند آن مفید باشد.

بررسی نقش کارگزاران و عوامل اجتماعی موثر بر مترجمان معاصر در انتخاب رمانهای ترجمه شده در ایران

بررسی معیارهای مترجمان زن با معیارهای مترجمان مرد در انتخاب اثر برای ترجمه و دلایل مشابهت یا تفاوت احتمالی معیارها.
2- مقایسه معیارهای انتخاب کتاب از نظر مترجمان معاصر و مترجمان پیشین، در صورت امکان.
3- مقایسه معیارهای انتخاب کتاب برای ترجمه در ایران و سایر کشورها.
4- مقایسه نقش عوامل اجتماعی و کارگزاران ترجمه در انتخاب آثاری از سایر ژانرها برای ترجمه با عوامل اجتماعی دخیل در ترجمه رمانها.
5- بررسی مقابله‌ای نقش عوامل اجتماعی و کارگزاران ترجمه در انتخاب اثر برای ترجمه در ایران و سایر کشورها.

تأثیر ترجمه بر ورود زبان عامیانه به ادبیات دوره مشروطه

     تکرار این پژوهش در دوره ی بعدی یعنی 50 سال دوم (سال 1300 ﻫ.ش. به بعد) و نمونه های این دوره می تواند ادامه ی این پژوهش باشد؛ با انجام چنین پژوهشی می توان دریافت که روند تغییر در نثر فارسی ادامه پیدا می کند یا نه و در چه زمانی به ثبات می رسد.
     پژوهش دیگری که در راستای احیای تاریخ ترجمه می تواند توفیقی ایجاد کند بررسی این موضوع است که علت تقدم کاربرد زبان عامیانه در ترجمه ها چه بوده است؛ آیا پیروی از متن اصلی سبب بوده یا علل دیگری داشته است.
     پیشنهاد دیگری که می توان از بطن این پژوهش مطرح کرد تحقیقی جداگانه در مورد کاربرد ساختار و نحو محاوره ای می باشد. انجام چنین پژوهشی و مشخص کردن بسامد مواردی که در نحو محاوره ای این دوره اتفاق افتاده اند می تواند وسعت دید ما را درباره ی تغییرات زبانی ادبیات فارسی گسترده تر کند. در راستای این پژوهش می توان تحقیقی جداگانه درباره ی کاربرد لغات و عبارات عامیانه در نثر این دوره انجام داد تا مشخص شود که طیف این لغات و عبارات کدام است و آیا بیشتر نویسندگان و مترجمان از یک طیف خاص از لغات و عبارات استفاده می کنند یا نه.

ترجمة استعاره‌های دفتر اوّل مثنوی معنوی:
روش‌ها و رویکردهای نیکلسون و مجددی

دانشجویان و پژوهشگران می‌توانند با گسترش دادن دامنة داده‌های مورد بررسی به غنای پژوهش‌هایی از نوع پژوهش حاضر بیفزایند، به این صورت که تعداد بیشتری از ترجمه‌های موجود (مانند ترجمة گوپتا، ردهاوس، یا ویلیامز) را بررسی کنند؛ حجم بیشتری از متن مثنوی را بررسی کنند (باقی‌ماندة دفتر اول، تمام دفترهای دوم و سوم) تا استعاره‌های بیشتری استخراج شود و تعمیم داده‌ها مطمئن‌تر صورت پذیرد.
استعاره‌های غزلیات شمس هم که متنی عرفانی‌تر و تغزلی می‌باشد می‌تواند موضوع پژوهش قرار گیرد، به‌ویژه با توجه به این‌که 400 غزل آن را آربری به‌سبک نیکلسون ترجمه کرده است و از سوی دیگر ترجمه – اقتباس‌های کسانی چون بارکس هم بیشتر از همین غزلیات است تا مثنوی. هم‌چنین می‌توان با همین الگوی طرح‌شده در این پژوهش به سراغ سایر آثار کلاسیک ادبیات فارسی هم رفت، آثاری چون شاه‌نامة فردوسی، دیوان حافظ، و بوستان سعدی که یا تابه‌حال کسی سراغی از آن‌ها نگرفته است یا صرفاً بخشی از آن‌ها از نظر ترجمة استعاره بررسی شده‌اند.

مقایسه فرآیندهای ترجمه انگلیسی به فارسی مترجمان ایرانی
 تازه کار و حرفه ای

با توجه به گزینش غیر تصادفی با تعداد اندک شرکت کنندگان در این تحقیق، نتایج و یافته های به دست آمده بدون انجام مطالعات و بررسی های بیشتر، قابل تعمیم نمی باشد. روش های گوناگون و متعدّدی برای اجراء مجدّد این تحقیق و جود دارد و می توان با تغییر یک یا چند متغیّر بررسی های جدیدی را به انجام رسانید. البته به نظر می رسد که ماهیّت و ویژگی تحلیل های کیفی چنین است یعنی به عبارتی حتّی می توان این تحقیق را عیناً بر روی شرکت کنندگان دیگر و یا بافت اجتماعی دیگر انجام داده و نتایجی موافق یا متضاد به دست آورد. در ذیل به ارائه پیشنهاداتی برای انجام تحقیقات بیشتر در زمینه مقایسه فرآیندهای طی شده در ترجمه توسط مترجمین تازه کار و حرفه ای پرداخته می شود.
• استفاده از متن گونه یا ژانر متفاوت. به عنوان مثال جایگزینی متن توضیحی با متن گونه های دیگری چون متون ادبی، سیاسی و غیره.
• استفاده از افراد متفاوت با سطوح متفاوتی از توانش و تجربه. به عنوان مثال استفاده از معیار های نظریه پردازان مختلف برای تشخیص مترجم حرفه ای از تازه کار و ارائه تعریفی دیگر از مترجم حرفه ای و تازه کار.
• استفاده از جفت های زبانی متفاوت به جای جفت های زبانی انگلیسی و فارسی. به عنوان مثال می توان از انگلیسی به اسپانیایی یا از آلمانی به فرانسه نیز به استفاده از شیوه های تحقیق مشابه به فرایند ترجمه پرداخت.
• در نظر گرفتن محدودیت زمانی برای انجام ترجمه. در نظر گرفتن زمان محدود برای انجام ترجمه می تواند به عنوان یکی از فاکتورهای تعیین کننده، نتایج متفاوتی را به همراه داشته باشد.
• استفاده از روش های تحقیق جدید تری چون رد یابی چشمی (
eye tracking)به عنوان شیوه مکمّل.
• در نظر گرفتن محدودیت استفاده از منابع مختلف در حین ترجمه. به عبارتی می توان مشابه تحقیق حاضررا با مشخّص کردن استفاده صرف از دیکشنری های آن لاین و یا فیزیکی به انجام رسانید.
• استفاده از تکنیک فکر گویی در ترجمه به صورت دسته جمعی که می تواند عوامل اجتماعی و ارتباطی گسترده تری را در تحقیق دخیل نماید.
• دخیل کردن تحلیل کیفی متن ترجمه به روش های تحقیق نیز می تواند زمینه های بیشتری را برای مطالعه و بررسی فرایند ترجمه فراهم سازد.

ترجمۀ استعاره های قرآن کریم مورد پژوهی؛ بیست ترجمه فارسی

انجام پژوهش در حوزۀ متون اسلامی بسیار متنوع و لذت بخش است. از طرفی قرار گرفتن در محضر قرآن و انس با آن، خود غنیمتی است که امروزه در زندگی ماشینی و پرمشغله به اسانی حاصل نمی شود. از طرف دیگر چون به طور یقین مترجمانی که به سراغ ترجمۀ قرآن کریم می روند، مترجمانی فرهیخته و متبحر در زمینۀ کاری خود هستند، بررسی آثار ایشان فواید آموزشی فراوانی برای خود پژوهشگر نیز در بر خواهد داشت.
دانشجویان و پژوهشگران می توانند با گسترش دادن دامنۀ داده های مورد بررسی به غنای این پژوهش ها بیفزایند، به این صورت که تعداد بیشتری از ترجمه های موجود را بررسی کرده، حجم بیشتری از قرآن کریم را بررسی کنند(سوره های دیگر قرآن و یا جزء هایی ازقرآن کریم) تا استعاره های بیشتری استخراج شود و تعمیم داده ها ممکن شود. هم چنین می توان با همین الگوی طرح شده در این پژوهش به سراغ سایر متون اسلامی هم رفت، آثاری که یا تا به حال چنین تحقیقی روی آنها صورت نگرفته و یا صرفا بخشی از آن ها از نظر ترجمۀ استعاره بررسی شده اند.

A Look into the Association between Life-Wise Syllabus and Teacher Success: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study in an EFL Context

Many other studies related to the same topic can also be done so that factors other than syllabus design are taken into account to see the influence of each on the teacher success. The same study can also be replicated so as to obtain more accurate results. In this part, some ideas for further research will be proposed.
First of all, the same research can be done with more participants and a more representative sample so that more accurate results can be obtained.
This study was performed to explore the relationship between life-responsive language teaching belief and teacher success in an EFL context, researchers are suggested to carry out the same study in a context in which English is considered as a second language to see what kind of relationship exists between the two variables and their subscales.
In this study the credential, degree, and license differences were ignored. It might be of interest to other researchers of this domain to see whether the credentials, degrees, and license the teachers hold have any relationship with their perceptions of life-responsive language teaching belief.
Teachers' experience is an important element which should be taken into account in evaluating teacher success so another topic of research might be exploring the relationship between this feature and the two main variables of this study and also its influence on them.
Also the upper-intermediate and advanced level students were chosen as the participants of study so other researchers are proposed to replicate the same study for students of other levels like university students.
The focus of this study was to find out the relationship between teacher's success and the extent to which they believe in life-responsive language teaching belief. Comparative studies could be done to see how various syllabus designs are correlated with teacher success.
There are differences between various English language teaching schools regarding the syllabus they provide their teachers with. Some language schools strictly want their teachers to only cover what's mentioned in the syllabus whether leaner-centered or of the type designed by specialist approach and no minor revision or modification of syllabus is tolerated by those top bananas recruiting the teachers but some language schools might give room to such modifications and revisions according to the students' needs and the instant expectations of both teachers and students. Comparing the teachers' success of these two types of language schools is suggested to other researchers who are active in this field.
There are different criteria according to which teachers are employed and recruited in both public language schools and private language schools on temporary or permanent basis. Also the types of tests given to the language teachers are different in different institutions. To what extent the criteria correspond to the teachers' success in the course of time could be studied in different contexts.
In this study the teacher success was evaluated according to the students' perceptions of their teachers' success and the correlations between the results obtained from these perceptions and those of life-responsive language teaching belief were measured and interpreted in close inspection. Other researchers are suggested to also take into account students' achievement in different courses by using validated test to explore how successful the teachers are according to the students' achievement at the end of the course.
The same study could be done with an experimental design to look for the possible relationship between a particular teacher success in two different classes with the same level to see whether the teacher is accounted as successful in both classes by the students or not.

Investigating the Effectiveness of  Dynamic Assessment in English to Persian  Translation Classes

This research project is the first study exploring the potentials DA possesses to reform translator training programs.  The present study produced certain results, but many more studies are required to obtain definitive results concerning the application of DA in translation classes and the potentials it possesses to improve current translation teaching and evaluation methodologies. Due to the novelty of DA in Translation Studies and the diversity of concepts DA encompasses, the list of suggestions for further research can be exhaustive. Here the researcher suffices to mention just a few ones:
1. In this study Feuerstein's interactionist approach to DA (MLE) was applied. Further studies are needed to examine other DA approaches particularly Brown's Graduated Prompts interventionist approach. 
2. The present study was conducted with a number of novice translator trainees. Similar study can be conducted on more advanced trainees to examine the effectiveness of DA and the types of mediation needed.
3. In this study literary texts were used to examine the effectiveness of DA in promoting translation ability. Similar studies can be conducted focusing on other domains of translation (legal, journalistic, etc.).
4. Computerized DA (CDA) which is gaining increasing credit in the domain of language learning can also be a great source of inspiration for translation researchers.

رابطه ميان ميزان تمايل به ارتباط برقراركردن با ديگران به زبان انگليسي و روش‌هاي يادگيري  زبان و آستانة تحمل

This study used quantitative design to do the research. Qualitative techniques like interview and observation can also be used to strengthen the results of the study. As the present study only used questionnaire which relies on students' self-reports, some students may underestimate or overestimate their abilities.
This study only focused on students from private language learners in a city in North-east of Iran. Therefore, the results of the study cannot be easily generalized to other contexts.

The Impact of Attending EFL Classes on Learners’ Self-Concept and Self-Esteem: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners

 1. The data gathering method used in this study was through questionnaires. It is worthy to conduct a study, which combines this form of quantitative research with qualitative methods.
 2. Similar studies are critically needed to see whether the results will be the same as or different from the results of the present study.
 3. This study did not take into account the participants gender. Future studies can run to see if there is any difference regarding gender.
4. Due to the short time of this study (8-9 weeks), conducting a study in which EFL class attenders spend more time in EFL classes (more than just one term) is suggested.
 5. Suffice it to say at this point that there are other questionnaires to examine self-esteem, as said by Demo (1985) that the Rosenberg and Coopersmith scales performed best in factor analysis. In order to have more accurate results, running the same study using another questionnaire such as Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale is recommended.

A Qualitative Investigation of the current Practice of MA Program in English Translation

The following are recommendations that could prove helpful in further research regarding studies of MA English Translation students.
1- Providing information about thesis based students versus course based students could prove useful.
2- A study could be conducted to further examine satisfaction between genders. A qualitative based study may be better suited to this topic.
3- Comparing different Universities which perform this program and the students level of competencies in different skills.

بررسی عوامل محیطی تاثیرگذار بر تمایل به برقراری ارتباط کلامی به زبان انگلیسی از دیدگاه بوم شناسی

There are several limitations to the present study. One obvious limitation stems from the nature of qualitative ecologically valid research conducted in the classroom.  The findings of the qualitative studies cannot be generalised beyond the specific learners and the context involved in those studies. However, according Cameron and Larsen-Freeman (2007), thinking in terms of particular generalisations rather than universal generalisations in ecological research is useful.
Another limitation of this study is its focus on the speaking mode of L2 WTC. According to MacIntyre et al. (1998), L2 WTC covers all modes of communication. Hence; future studies can be targeted toward focusing on L2 WTC not only in the oral mode but also listening, writing, and reading modes as well.
In the present study, the microsystem level of ecosystem model was more closely explored and focused comparing the other layers. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the ecological framework of Iranian EFL learners' WTC, future studies can be carried out attempting at exploring all the layers closely.
Besides; further future studies are warranted examining the effect of time on WTC fluctuations and also investigating the most pertinent factors affecting language learners' WTC studying English in different levels from elementary to advanced.

بررسي ارتباط ميان کمرويي حس خود کار آمدي و تمايل به برقراري ارتباط با توجه به عملکرد زباني يادگيرندگان زبان دوم در ايران

     Studies on shyness appear to offer a particularly promising avenue of research for informing second language instruction. A replication of this study with English majors or language learners in a different learning context other than language institutes, such as university or schools would be a reasonable next step.
     In addition, future research may investigate the relationships between shyness and other leaner psychological variables such as personality traits, psychological well-being; motivation, personality scales strategies, field dependency/independency and so on. Further efforts should also be made to develop and test the causal links among shyness and second language performance and achievement.
     The same is recommended for the other two variables of the present study. Willingness to communicate and self-efficacy can be studied in relation to other affective variables that have not been studied up to now, in different language learning contexts, and in different language learning levels.
     In addition, the participants of this study were advanced EFL learners. So the same subject can be studied in different levels and even compare the variables of this study on different levels of language learning.
     Shyness and the relationship it bears to age was not investigated in this study, which paves the way for other researchers.
     The research method of data collection employed in the current study mainly relied on quantitative method of survey questions which can enable researchers to deal with a large number of participants. However, because of the complicated nature of affective variables, it is recommended that researchers employ different methods of collecting data such as observation and oral interviews, which are qualitative methods, in order to collect diverse resources.
     Regarding the setting of study, this study was done in informal setting of language institutes, which is different from formal settings that are limited and restricted and have to follow a set of regulations. Therefore, the same study can be replicated in formal settings of language learning in Iran.
     In this study, the first language of participants was not taken into account, but other researchers could focus on whether there is any significant relationship between Iranians students' shyness, self-efficacy and willingness to communicate all in Persian and English.
     And finally, further research needs to consider increasing the number of participants across wider geographical areas in Iran in order to increase generalizability. Replication studies are also necessary to confirm or reject the findings of this study in Iranian educational contexts.     

 

 

 

Animated-Bullet-DiamondBlueDark 1391                                                                                                         bazgasht

 

عنوان پایان نامه

پیشنهادهای پژوهش

A Comparative Study into Speech Act of Gratitude in Persian and English

The current study proves that gratitude strategies differ across cultures. Also it proves that gender has an effect on the selection of strategies. So more studies are needed to investigate learners’ perception and production of gratitude expression in different cultures considering other factors such as age, cultural background, and language proficiency. It is worth investigating the effect teaching speech acts in classrooms has on the perception of learners.
   The researcher also suggests investigating production of speech act of gratitude in a larger number of institutes and universities. Furthermore, this study does not consider personality factor of interlocutor; so it would be helpful to find out whether this factor plays an important role in the speech act of gratitude.
    In addition, the present study used DCTs as a research tool which might yield data differently from naturally-occurring data. A similar study can be done with another format of data collection, adding to the results of the current study and broaden learners' understanding of gratitude expressions in natural settings. Moreover, a longitudinal approach might be applied for a better understanding of the development of pragmatic competence by EFL learners. However, this study has focused on perceptions of politeness rather than on the production of politeness, thus a study is worth conducting on the speech act of gratitude with respect to the production of politeness to see whether or not the results of this study are confirmed.
 

An Empirical Investigation into the Interrelationships Among Selected Cognitive Characteristics of Iranian IELTS Test-Takers and Their Test Performance:          A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Since this study, like any other studies, has been subject to certain limitations, all the notions could not be covered. So, the researcher suggests the following issues to be taken into account for any future research:

 First, this study lacks a qualitative phase (e.g., interview …) which can certainly overcome the shortcomings that may be presented by the use of quantitative type (obtained from questionnaires only) of data collection. Whereas surveys reveal what language learners believe they do, they cannot uncover what the learners actually do. Some participants may inflate or underestimate their strategy use or their self-efficacy levels. Therefore, incorporating a qualitative phase to the studies of this nature will support and substantiate the findings obtained from the quantitative phase and, in turn, adds to its significance and value.

 Other concerns were the issues of sample size and sampling procedure of the study. The sample size of the participants who took part was not considerable as employing a larger sample definitely makes the results of this study more generalizable and valid, especially when SEM is the primary statistical procedure of a study. Using a more controlled scientific probabilistic sampling procedure (e.g. random sampling, stratified random sampling, etc), if possible, is recommended which, in turn, contributing into more valid and generalizable results.

 As Bachman (1990) pointed out, there are a number of factors which have been considered to affect language performance (discussed earlier); while only two individual characteristics (language learning strategy use and self-efficacy) are the focus of the present study and other potentially influential variables, such as anxiety, aptitude, motivation, attitude, cognitive style, intelligence, other types of strategies, socio-economic status, test-taking strategies, gender, age,…. call for further research to investigate their relationship with language performance thoroughly.

 Replication of this study with language learners / test-takers with various backgrounds in different learning contexts is necessary to determine how well the results may be generalized to other EFL learners / test-takers and to explore whether relationships between the measured variables are stronger or weaker.

تحلیل پیکره ای بسته های لغوی در مقالات نویسندگان ایرانی و بین المللی رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی

Future studies can look into how lexical bundles are used in other registers, such as academic lectures and conference presentations by various groups and genre communities. Other researchers could also attempt to extract lexical bundles using certain criteria which were not used in this study (e.g., Mututal Information Score or rater judgment), and compare their findings to that of this study. Another interesting area waiting to be explored is the methods and techniques through which lexical bundles could be taught in the classroom. Future studies could make use of the lists provided in this research to develop graded teaching materials and investigate their effectiveness in the EAP writing classroom.

طراحی .پایایی و روایی پرسشنامه  دانش اموزی سرمایه اجتماعی و پیدا کردن رابطه بین سرمایه اجتماعی و موفقیت در یادگیری زبان خارجه

Regarding the number of the participants and the homogeneity of the sample (only District 4), the study can be replicated in more heterogeneous groups (different Districts). Another issue that needs further investigation would be to observe students' English practices at home and then to analyze the roles of parents in these types of practices.
     Considering the cultural diversities, the researcher of this study suggest adding some new questions to the SSCQ to indicate the role and importance of English as a foreign language in the demographics part, when investigating the role of social capital indicators on language achievement. In this case the analysis would be more logical and the justification of the results would be more evidential. New ideas and suggestions can be provided regarding the importance of English as a subject in school curriculum. The added questions can be: the amount of travelling abroad (especially to the countries with English as their native language), the family's attitudes toward English, their attitudes about English culture and the family's emphasis on English education. All these questions help the researcher to analyze and discuss parental aspirations and affective cultural factors more easily.

Exploring the Relationship between Teacher Competency and Foreign Language Learning Motivation among Three Paradigms of Foreign Language Teaching: a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

  In the present study, a self-report questionnaire filled out by learners about their teachers' teaching perspective was used. Future research needs to examine the teachers' teaching approach more directly through class observation of the classrooms and interview with the teachers.
      In the present study, learner and teacher was not taken into account. Future research can use this demographic variable for further examination of the role of gender in teaching paradigm and teacher competency.
      Here, the role of teachers' beliefs and teacher competency were examined as predictors of the learners' motivational processes.  There are other important teacher characteristics that can influence learner motivation, like payment, teachers' personality, and years of working experience. Therefore, future research can explore the role of these variables simultaneously as predictors of the students' motivation to learn English.
      In this study, the researcher examined the role of teacher competency and teacher beliefs on learners' motivation among the language institute learners. Further research can explore the role of these variables in public schools and compare them with the results of the present study. It might help to get a better understanding of the underlying structure of beliefs and teacher competency in public schools and private language institutes.

معرفی روش تدریس اسکیمایی برای دروس زبان انگلیسی عمومی در دانشگاههای ایران 

The findings showed that schema-based teaching of the schemata used in the instructional materials brings about significant differences in the learner’s performance in comprehending texts for intermediate English learners of an Iranian university. Future research is required to find out whether similar results will be obtained at other levels of proficiency i.e., advanced and beginner English learners. Additionally, further studies could be done to compare the effect of schematic analysis on recall and reading speed of the first and second language readers.
        Through this study, schema-based instruction is shown to have a determining effect on augmenting the degree of comprehension of English reading passages. Additional research is required to check its potential for improving the other receptive skill, i.e. listening ability, particularly in the academic contexts in which attending the class activities and lectures is vital for English learners to advance their knowledge.
       The Schema Theory can provide researchers with an objective measure to analyze texts for different purposes. Although its accountability has been documented for translation studies (Khodadady & Seif, 2006), further studies are needed to see whether schematic analysis provides an objective means for comparing translations with the original texts to disclose the extent to which translators have been successful in conveying the intended message via their provision of appropriate equivalent schemata.
      As reading comprehension lay a solid foundation for writing ability, supplementary research seems to be an educational necessity to witness whether similar improvements will be found if the schema-based instruction is extended to writing classes. Schematic analysis has the potential for providing an objective basis for comparing authentic pieces of writing with those of Iranian English learners to determine the degree of discrepancy in using different schemata and some solutions to fill the possible gaps in between.

تجزیه و تحلیل متنی یک کتاب دندانپزشکی انگلیسی و ترجمه فارسی آن: روش اسکیمایی

Since each study suffers from some limitations, all the variables could not be covered here, so these suggestions can be taken into account for any future research:
• Conducting the research on a text or book with fewer pages for analyzing all schemata of the text and gaining more precise results;
• Conducting the research on different types of translated texts;
  Conducting the research on comparing the ST and its translation in other scientific fields;
  Conducting the research with different source language and target language;
• Taking into consideration various translation of one text and comparing them with each other to see which one is the best translation of the source text. For example, different  English translations of Quran can be compared with each other based on theory of schema.
• Conducting the research on translations of one text into different languages. For example, various  translations of Quran into different languages such as English and Persian can be compared based on theory of schema to see which one is more compatible with the original text.

رابطه ان ال پی با فرسودگی شغلی در معلمان زبان انگلیسی

The present study tried to predict burnout using NLP factors. But there are also other areas for further research which are not included in this study.
First, this study can be repeated order to confirm or reject the findings.
Second, this study can be replicated with a larger sample of English language teachers to find out whether the results will be the same.
 Third, for determining the effective role of NLP factors on preventing English language teachers from burnout, some qualitative studies should be done. Therefore, the contributing role of NLP factors can be explored. By their findings, the teachers will become more conscious about the causes of burnout and new innovative ways of successfully coping with burnout. Furthermore, the results can be used in areas other than education settings, such as business, health care or psychology.
Fourth, it is suggested to conduct a longitudinal study in order to determine the positive effect of learning NLP factors on burned out teachers after learning new NLP techniques during the course. Therefore, a cure will be proposed by the study.
Fifth, it is also suggested that future studies consider teachers’ age and degree. It can be hypothesized that older teachers are more burned out than younger ones and are different in NLP factors. Also, it can be hypothesized that teachers with higher educational degree make more use of NLP factors than the ones with lower levels of educations

The Influence of Social and Cultural Capital on EFL Students’ Critical Thinking Skills

Many other studies related to the same topic can be done so that other factors other than social and cultural capitals are taken in to account, too. The same study can also be replicated so as to obtain more accurate results. In this part some ideas for further research will be proposed.
First of all the same research can be done with more participants and a more representative sample so that more accurate results can be obtained.
Gender differences were ignored in this research. It can form another study since different genders might have different critical thinking ability.
The participants of this study were chosen among students studying English. Another study can be done to see if the same results will be obtained with students majoring in other subjects.

تمایل به ارتباط به زبان انگلیسی: مدل اکولوژیکی میکروسیستم در زمینه کلاس های زبان انگلیسی در ایران 

The present study was a quantitative research relying on a sophisticated statistical method called SEM which explored L2WTC in the Iranian EFL context. This method is dependent on student's self-reports which may be complemented with qualitative methods. Therefore, future research can explore L2WTC in the Iranian context using qualitative methods like observation and interview.
This study examined L2WTC within the microsystem of Iranian EFL classroom context. However, the other three systems of ecological perspective including mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem were not investigated. Future studies can explore these three systems in this context especially using qualitative methods.
In the present study, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations were aggregated as indicators of the motivation. Hence, the direct effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations was not investigated. Future studies can use these two types of motivation as two different latent variables in order to clarify the nature of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in L2WTC research.
The researcher in the present study asked students to write their grades in reading, speaking, and writing courses. This method may not be appropriate as the students may not remember their exact score due to some cognitive shortcomings. Although it was not possible for the present study to perform a standardized test of proficiency like IELTS or TOEFL because of time and cost constraints, future research can use these tests to have a better evaluation of the learners' L2 proficiency.
WTC is a construct which is not limited only to speaking. In this study, only speaking aspect of WTC was examined. Future studies can examine WTC with regard to other three modes and compare WTC in different modes.
Finally, WTC was evaluated with a scale which was validated in Japanese EFL context. Although it has been used in other contexts (e.g. in China by Peng & Woodrow, 2010), designing and validating a questionnaire for the very specific context of Iran may shed more light on the nature of this construct in this context.

ارتباط میان هوش فرهنگی زبان آموزان ایرانی و عملکرد آنها در بخش گفتاری و نوشتاری آزمون آیلتس 

     Every scientific enquiry opens new directions for further research. Some of the parameters by which research in this domain may be continued are as follows: First other researchers interested in CQ can carry out more research on the interplay between CQ and language learning strategies. Second, the contribution of CQ to EFL learners’ achievement in other proficiency tests, such as TOEFL, FCE, CAE, and CPE, may be the subject of future investigations. Third, classroom observations may be done to examine the role of CQ in EFL.ESL learners’ interactional patterns. Forth, the association between EFL teachers’ CQ and their pedagogical success can be subject to further inquiries.       

ارتباط نحوه نگرش زبان آموزان به موفقیت و شکستشان و نوع شخصیت آنها 

The following suggestions are raised for additional research to further enhance our understanding of the relationship between learners’ personality traits and their attributional factors.
Learners’ attribution can be affected by many different factors; therefore, many other studies related to the same topic can be done so that factors other than personality traits are taken into account as it is not the only cause that might affect the type of factors that learners attribute their successes and failures to.
The same study can also be replicated so as to obtain more accurate results. Replication studies might confirm or reject the findings of the present study.
The same research can be done with more participants to obtain more accurate results and to generalize and project findings on to a larger population.
This study used NEO-FFI to determine learners’ personality traits so other personality questionnaires and scales can be used as their use might yield more significant results.
The data of this study were collected from learners aged from 12 to 17. It is recommended that various age groups be included in the replications to compare children and adults language learning.
Some qualitative aspects such as family background can also be explored by interviewing the learners to get more accurate data for analysis.
Participants of the present research were studying at lower intermediate level. Future studies can also examine the relationship of these two variables concerning subjects’ proficiency levels to see how it might effect this interaction.
The same study can be replicated in settings other than language institutes, for example in junior high school, high school and university.
Finally, it is suggested that future studies add more variables such as culture, social class, family background, IQ, EQ, and learning styles.

بررسی تاثیر استفاده از آموزش محتوی بنیان بر پیشرفت و انگیزه ی زبان آموزان مدارس ایرانی

     Feeling the shortcomings in ELT in the educational system in Iran the researcher in the present study has tried to investigate whether using CBLT in school classes has the desirable effect on students’ general English knowledge and their motivation. The results revealed that students were able to get higher marks when they received their instruction in CBLT they also showed higher motivation levels. By casting a careful look at the present conditions of ELT in Iran, we perceive the urgent need for reforming the inadequacies. It is necessary that we realize that here, we are talking of making fundamental changes to a system whose roots have permeated the beliefs of many teachers and students for more that five decades. Therefore it is vital that we consider the issue from all aspects. Many more studies may be done in this respect. In addition to the results of this study which indicate the benefit of an improvement in the students’ general English knowledge, further studies need to be conducted in order to clarify the degree of the effect of CBLT on specific skill and areas for example reading listening speaking and writing. Many more studies are needed with relation to the impact of CBLT on students’ motivation. In this study the students’ motivation was investigated from only one of the theoretical views on motivation namely cognitive/psychological school. Further studies are needed to investigate the issue from other motivational theories for example Dornyei’s process oriented conceptualization of motivation. Here in the present study it was revealed that CBLT has positive immediate benefits to the students’ English level and motivation further studies are needed to look in to the long term effects of this approach especially on students’ success in university studies and carrier improvement. The application of CBLT might have a significant influence on students use of metacognitive strategies which is still unknown to us. Further studies may be conducted investigating the changes that occur to students’ perception of learning, Creativity or intelligence when they are taught through CBLT.

بررسی تاثیر مداخله موثر مدرس بر تغییر  نگرش زبان آموزان نسبت به موفقیت و شکستشان و رابطه آن با فراگیری زبان انگلیسی 

The present study tried to find out the impact of AR on learners' perceived attributions and language learning. But this study can be expanded to other areas:
    First, it is suggested to replicate this study with more participants and longer period of attributional intervention; therefore, the results will be more accurate and generalizable.
    Second, this research can be conducted on the participants with different age groups, namely young teenagers and college students, to provide the proper findings for comparing the AR effects between two distinctive age ranges.
    Third, it is recommended to carry out a similar study by making use of another attributional measurement scale to confirm or reject these findings and/ or to explore learners' perceived attributions in the light of other subcategories.
     Forth, it can be conducted in English language institutions where the main focus is on language learning to see whether AR is more or less effective on changing the EFL learners' perceived attributions and their language achievements in a context with the solo aim of English language learning .
     Fifth, as this study dealt with female participants, a study considering the role of gender on the perceived attributions and the AR effect is recommended. In such a study, males and females could be compared in this respect

An Investigation into the Role of Iranian EFL Learners’Narrative Intelligence,Verbal Intelligence,
 Grammar knowledge, and Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge, in their Speaking and Writing Skills: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

The results of this study generate a number of questions which can be investigated in further research. The impact of a narrative intervention program which is merged into an L2 writing course on L2 learners’ writing performance can be investigated through an experimental study. Sine depth of vocabulary and narrative intelligence were found to be the best classifiers of L2 writers, it would be useful to explore the relationship of these two variables via qualitative research. This study can also be extended by using a more diverse set of writing topics which may affect the interaction between narrative intelligence and language factors specially collocational knowledge.  Another line of research to pursue can deal with the rating processes and the possible role of the dynamics of narrative intelligence for developing the mental representations of coherence in the mind of raters. Last but not the least, the neuroimaging techniques offered by cognitive scientists can be used to complement the instruments of the present study with neural correlates of lexical processing and narrative intelligence in L2 writing.
The inclusion of cognitive factors in a model of writing implies the necessity of interdisciplinary study of this complex skill. This necessity has been emphasized by several other researchers (Lowry, Curtis, & Lowry, 2004; Magnifico, 2010; Vaid & Padakannaya, 2004). Further research can pursue investigating the interrelationship of the dynamics of narrative intelligence and discourse features of learner`s written corpora, exploring the cognitive and metacognitive processes in L2 which correlate with high verbal and narrative intelligence, studying the interaction of linguistic and cognitive factors for predicting the writing ability, using experimental designs to test the practical value of intelligence-informed teaching agendas, and designing research projects for testing the neuropsychological validity of the role of intelligence factor in L2 writing.
The role of intelligence factors in receptive skills i.e. reading and listening can be analyzed using a similar SEM approach. More diverse samples form populations with different L1 backgrounds can be included in the future projects to exclude any possible extraneous variables created in the Iranian context. This study was totally based on behavioral correlates of speech fluency. A more comprehensive research project would include neural correlates as well. This study focused only on the speaking module of the IELTS exam; future studies can be conducted using other standardized or validated tests of speaking to produce a more representative set of research results that can reflect the current situation of the speaking assessment in general.

Willingness to Communicate with Regard to Psychological Well-Being: The Case of Undergraduate Iranian Students Majoring in English Language

Since digging into psychological factors is a complex and multifaceted process, triangulation of findings is needed. In this study, the instrumentation consisted of questionnaires. Therefore, more studies are needed to investigate this matter with other methods, especially qualitative ones.  Interviewing students and letting them disclose their feelings in a freer way could give us a more comprehensive view about psychological issues. Moreover, qualitative methods do not use scientific measurement of human traits and abilities, which is the main problem of quantitative ones.
This study was done in the formal settings of universities. We all know that there are major differences in formal and informal settings. Formal settings are more limited and have to follow a set of regulations, whereas informal settings are more open and are not as restricted as formal ones. Therefore, this study needs to be replicated in the informal setting of Iran, i.e. English language institutes. In addition to informal settings, it could be done with university students majoring in other fields. Furthermore, since only undergraduate students were included in this study, similar research could be done with graduate and post graduate students.
As claimed by Dornyei (2005), WTC is highly situated in nature and is made up of a combination of psychological, linguistic and contextual variables. Therefore, a thorough investigation needs to be conducted in the Iranian context regarding each of these factors, which comprise many variables. The contextual factor is particularly important in the EFL setting,
which does not provide enough opportunities for students to communicate in L2. More studies need to be done on the different variables that could predict WTC in Iranian English- major students.
WTC in Iranian learners’ L1, which is Persian, could be investigated with regard to all four language skills. Following that, different factors that influence WTC in Persian in Iranian students at different levels, including primary, high school and university could be studied. The factors influencing students’ WTC in L1, such as instructional methods and materials, could be examined. Research could also focus on whether there is any significant relationship between Iranian students’ WTC in Persian and their WTC in English.
It seems that further investigations should be conducted on the role of psychological well-being in the field of education, in general. For example, the relationship between psychological well-being with educational attainment can be taken into consideration. Studies can even find out the relationship between the psychological well-being of students with other factors, such as parental support, economical status of family, place of living, etc. To this purpose, students of elementary and high schools could be investigated. Their grades and performance in University Entrance Exams could be looked into with regard to their psychological well-being.
 In the field of language teaching, the relationship between psychological well-being and proficiency level of learners can be examined in detail. Furthermore, it could be examined with regard to other psychological variables involved in language learning, such as extroversion/introversion, field dependence/independence, ambiguity tolerance, locus of control, self-esteem and self-efficacy. The relationship between psychological well-being and other personality traits could also be studied. In order to do this, different personality scales and questionnaires, such as Myers-Briggs and Big Five Model could be employed. Afterwards, their relationship with
language learning could be examined in detail.  It seems that a great deal of research could be conducted using this very important variable. Therefore, its application could open a new area of investigation in the field of TEFL, in particular.
It is also necessary to mention that in further studies in order to investigate the role of psychological well-being in the field of education in Iran using Ryff's Scale of Psychological Well-being, one must bear in mind that this scale should be modified according to our culture and norms since Iran is a collective culture having essentialist ideas and ideals.

Construction and Validation of Critical Understanding of the Global Spread of English Scale and Analysis of English Language Textbooks in the light of English as an International Language

Future research could lead to further evaluation and improvement of this scale. Researchers could continue to carry out thorough assessment of the psychometric properties of the instrument designed. Moreover, new items can be added to make the scale more comprehensive. Future studies could use a broader sample population from universities in all areas of Iran. This would ensure a higher degree of representativeness.
The relationship between language learners’ proficiency levels and their critical understanding towards the global spread of English could be thoroughly investigated. All aspects of learners’ proficiency levels, such as speaking, listening, reading and writing could be taken into account.
This study is one of the few in which parents’ views were taken into account. It could lead to more studies in which parents’ opinions regarding different issues about English and ELT are considered and looked into. An important point that needs to be taken into account is the effect of the educational level and background of the parents and their level of critical understanding. This may be a good research area for further investigation.
Since digging into the beliefs and understandings of people is a complex process, triangulation of the findings is needed. Thus, interviews and classroom observations are required to give a more comprehensive picture of the matter. Classroom observations are specifically needed to be done to delve into the actions and practices of professors and teachers, who are basically the orchestrators of classroom discourse and practice. This would ascertain with more confidence the extent to which their beliefs are reflected in classroom practice.
Further studies need to be conducted by employing more textbooks from a variety of textbook series, covering a more extended period. More in-depth analysis needs to be done on ELT textbooks from different perspectives, i.e. social, political, economic, etc. to clarify what exactly they are propagating. Further analyses of books help teachers and learners to gain deep and critical understanding of the material presented in English textbooks that are developed in English-speaking countries and taken for granted as the best sources for language learning. Moreover, think-aloud techniques can be done to investigate the attitude of individuals towards the cultural content presented in the textbooks. Participants from a variety of groups, viz. teachers, learners, university professors, parents, etc. can be included and their reactions can be compared.
On the whole, it is hoped that more studies of this kind be conducted in the Iranian EFL context.

شخصیت ، نگرش و بررسی رابطه آنها بامهارت صحبت کردن به زبان انگلیسی در میان زبان آموزان ایرانی

         Although the study answered five research questions regarding the connections among personality traits, attitude toward learning English, and English speaking ability, there are still many possible avenues for future exploration concerning related issues. The first possible future research topic is whether the latent traits in this study remain the same on the other English speaking performance, such as class conversation and debates rather than speaking module of IELTS. Second, the data in this study came entirely from a single method, i.e., Likert-scale based, self-report questionnaires. In order to avoid research method, future research into this area should consider adding at least one additional type of data collection, for example, participants could be asked to assess their classmates, or teachers could be asked to assess their students. Third, the research can  be conducted in relation to other language skills such as, writing, reading, and listening skills. To be exat, considering the relationship between personality and attitude with writing, reading, and listening skill. Finally, Although recent reviews on this subject seem to suggest that broad traits ( such as, openness to experience and extroversion) are better predictors of performance than primary traits ( such as, achievement striving), it has also been argued that examining specific personality traits has important exploratory advantages for the understanding of the processes underlying the relation between personality and performance (Ones & Viswesvaran, 1996). For that reason, future research can investigate the prediction of more specific personality traits on language performance

Construction and Validation of
an English Language Teacher Creativity Scale (ELT-CS)

It is our hope that future research will lead to additional evaluation and improvement of the ELT-CS. Therefore, further research in larger and appropriately targeted samples is recommended to support and improve the current instrument. Also, several studies could be conducted using this English language teacher creativity scale to find its objective association with various pedagogical and psychological variables. Another possible research could focus on ways to improve teachers’ tendency toward implementing further creative methods and tasks in the classroom. Moreover, it is recommended to discover other ways of understanding why some learners are more creative than their counterparts. The present study contributed to investigate the role of teachers and schools in the development of creativity; yet, other factors such as parents and economic and cultural level of their families remained untouched.

گفتمان، شکل گیری هویت ها، و گفتگوگرایی: مطالعات موردی زبان آموزان و مدرسین ایرانی در آموزشگاه های خصوصی زبان انگلیسی

One of the important and still thorniest questions probably for most responsible people in life in general is the question of identity or who they really are. Part of this question is formed when someone starts learning a language. Language defines the identities of a person in one or multiple ways and learning a second language in the same vein helps to reconstruct or deconstruct these identities. Our research was a little step for that matter in that identity is a complex issue that needs to be taken more seriously if cultural issues seem to be important for us. We need, however, more subjects and sites with various theories and types of identities and different types of researches, methodologies and data collection procedures to come to more reliable and valid conclusions (See also Chapter 1.6.).

قایسه مقالات منتشر شده به فارسی و انگلیسی در رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی از نظر کاربرد کنش گفتاری "استدلال"

Every useful study opens new directions for further study. Speech act of argumentation and contrastive rhetoric analysis are both important subjects that require more in-depth studies. Research in these areas can be continued in the following directions:
1. Replicating this study with a larger number of participants  could yield more credible results;
2. Investigating the rhetorical patterns of argumentation in other genres and field of science can bring us profound understanding of the existing differences in argumentation of articles written by native speakers of English and Persian;
3. Taking the experience of EFL article writers into account can play a significant   interaction effect between language and culture;
4. Also, investigating the speech act of Argumentation in spoken medium;
5. Finally, considering the role of translation in presenting speech act of argumentation in second language writing.

هوش فرهنگی، استرس حین نوشتن، و توانایی نوشتن با توجه به روانی، دقت، و پیچیدگی در میان دانش آموزان ایرانی سطح پیشرفته زبان انگلیسی

        Every scientific enquiry opens new directions for further research. Some of the parameters by which research in this domain may be continued are as follows: First other researchers interested in CQ can carry out more research on the interplay between CQ and other language skills. Second, the association between EFL teachers’ CQ and their pedagogical success can be subject to further inquiries. Third, the relationship between writing anxiety and CQ in other contexts may be a subject for research. Then, this study was carried out in the context of Mashhad, Iran; it would be of interest to find out if such findings of significance can be found in other learning environments. Finally, other researchers interested in this area may select more participants to obtain more extended data in order to use SEM to analyze them completely.     

رابطه هوش های چندگانه و مهارت ترجمه ادبی و غیر ادبی

Every research project opens up new horizons for further investigations. The present study was an attempt to investigate some questions related to the relationship between students’ MI level and their translation quality. Here are some of the areas suggested by the researcher for further investigation:
     Many other studies related to the same topic can be done so that psychological factors other than MI are taken into account such as translators’ personality types, learning styles, learning strategies, etc. It would be also beneficial to check if performance of people with different styles is different while taking different test formats. This research will also lead to fairer tests. Personality traits can also be better predictors of success in doing different test formats as people of different personality types tend to perform differently.
     The same study can also be replicated with more participants, more representative sample and more raters for assessing the translation qualities to obtain more accurate results.
     Gender differences which were neglected in this study can form another research project, as different genders might be stronger at certain intelligences. Their MI levels may also affect their performance on translation differently.
     This study only determined the relationship between MIs and translators’ literary and non-literary translation abilities. Another related study may be to reveal the role of multiple intelligences in the success of other translators such as technical translators, audio visual translators, translators of poems and song lyrics, interpreters and dubbers.
      In further studies, researchers can explore the existence of any relationship between other sub-intelligences of Gardner’s model and translation quality. Gardner has recently added a few more intelligence to the list, including existential and spiritual intelligences. In this research these newly proposed intelligences were neglected because the instrument at hand did not include them. Some further research can be done on the relationship between these intelligences and the students’ translation quality level.
     Another interesting research study would be to investigate whether those who have a related dominant intelligence to translation competency can perform better in certain educational situations and with particular treatments.
     In another study, the researchers can take the translation production task as the students’ final exam in order to make them pay more attention to their translations and translate more carefully which may result in different conclusions.
     According to the results of this study, visual-spatial intelligence can predict performance on literary translation negatively. However, logically visualizing the novel situations in literary text requires translators with strong visual-spatial intelligence. The reason may of coming at these results may be that the raters did not consider a distinct score for the visualizing ability of literary translators. Thus another study can be done, taking into account this essential ability for literary translation.
     The nature of the selected texts used in this study might have also affected the results. Therefore, it is a good idea to select some specific texts with specific characteristics which can be related to different intelligences. That seems necessary for the literary text to be selected in such a way that includes different aspects and difficulties literary translators are usually faced with such as creativity, cultural differences, visualizing ability in descriptive situations, etc. Thus new texts can be selected which are both relevant to the content and the decisions based on them are more reliable. Determining translation ability based on such texts may be fairer than the present selected ones. If attention is paid to test developments, more ethical testing will be practiced and test developers can make fairer decisions (McNamara, 2000). Therefore Yet, many studies can be done with taking into account test fairness considerations so that translation ability testers find enough evidence to be sure of the decisions they make based on test scores (cited in Bachman, 1990).
     Another interesting research study in this area would be designing a syllabus for literary translation courses based on the findings of this study and proposing teaching strategies and techniques to be used in order to improve literary translation abilities of the learners by taking into account individual intelligences.
     Also a new TQA model for a fairer assessment of literary translation quality can be designed based on the results of this study by paying attention to the intelligences translators need to complete the task.
     In another study, a ‘translator’s aptitude test can also be designed in order to be used in organizations working with professional translators and also in academic context for helping students choose their university major based on their own

استراتژیهای ترجمه سریالهای کمدی موقعیت (سیتکام) 

بررسی گرایش به جهانی سازی و بومی سازی در ترجمه طنز
• بررسی کمی تناظر شوخیها در متن اصلی و متن مقصد با مطالعه روی فیلمهای طنز دوبله شده

بررسی انتقادی تاریخ نقد ترجمه در ایران معاصر(1320-1357)

با توجه به یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر، موارد زیر برای پژوهش بیشتر در زمینه بررسی سنت نقد ترجمه در ایران پیشنهاد می‌گردد:
 الف. بررسی مبانی و روش نقد ترجمه متون علمی در بازه زمانی تحقیق حاضر و مقایسه آن با مبانی و روش نقد ترجمه ادبی
ب- بررسی نظام نقد ترجمه در ایران قبل از انقلاب به منظور شناسایی ژانرهایی که بیشترین فراوانی را در نقدها داشته‌اند و مقایسه میزان توجه منتقدان به ژانرهایی که در هر دوره در مرکز نظام چندگانه ترجمه در ایران قرار داشته‌اند.
ج. بررسی مبانی و روش نقد ترجمه در ایران پس از انقلاب اسلامی تا کنون و مقایسه آن با یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر به منظور بررسی پیشرفت یا عدم پیشرفت مبانی نقد ترجمه با توجه به ورود رشته مطالعات ترجمه به ایران و افزایش شمار محققان ترجمه در کشور و نیز بررسی سیر تحول نظریه ترجمه در ایران با مطالعه دیدگاه‌های منتقدان.
د. بررسی سیر تحول مفهوم امانت از نظر منتقدان ترجمه در نیمه اول سده اخیر در ایران.

بررسی راهبردهای مترجمان در ترجمه تابوهای زبانی و فرهنگی غربی در دوبله فیلم های انگلیسی زبان به فارسی

 بررسی دوبله فیلم ها در ژانرهای مختلف و مقایسه راهبردهای مورد استفاده در ترجمه تابوهای خاص هر ژانر
• بررسی فیلم های دوبله شده در موسسات مختلف خصوصی و رسانه ملی برای شناسایی و مقایسه راهبردهای مورد استفاده در هریک
• بررسی راهبردهای مترجمان در ترجمه تابوهای غربی در زیرنویس فیلم ها
• بررسی زیرنویس فیلم های دوبله شده و مقایسه راهبردهای مورد استفاده در ترجمه تابوها در زیرنویس و دوبله

بررسي مقابله‌اي ترجمة آيات متشابه در ترجمه‌هاي فارسي و انگليسي قرآن كريم

این پژوهش با هدف توصیف و بررسی  راهبردهای مترجمان در ترجمه آیات متشابه صورت گرفته است. نتایج این تحقیق می تواند به قرآن پژوهان و مترجمان قرآن کمک کند تا روش ترجمه مناسب را برای ترجمه ی این نوع آیات انتخاب کنند.
الف) این پژوهش به بررسی روش ترجمه آیات متشابه پرداخت و به نتایج مختلفی رسید. این پژوهش را می توان در مورد آیات محکم قرآن نیز انجام داد و داده های این تحقیق را با داده های مربوط به ترجمه آیات محکم قرآن مقایسه و بررسی کرد.
ب) با توجه به اینکه حجم نمونه ی این تحقیق به موضوعات خاصی از آیات متشابه محدود شده بود، در تحقیقات آینده می توان موضوعات دیگر آیات متشابه مانند بحث اراده و جبر و اختیار را نیز بررسی کرد

گرايش به سبك اسمي در متون ترجمه   شدة غيرادبي امروز 

در اين پژوهش احتمال گرايش به سبك اسمي را تنها در متون توضيحي بررسي كرديم؛ توصيه مي  -شود كه ساير پژوهشگران اين موضوع را در متون ديگر همچون متون ادبي و مطبوعاتي موضوع را بررسي كنند.
ب-  در اين پژوهش متون ترجمه شده با اصل اثر مقابله نشدند، به پژوهشگران توصيه مي  شود كه نظير اين تحقيق را با مقابله با اصل خود كتاب  ها انجام دهند.
ج- در اين پژوهش براي بررسي گرايش زبان فارسي به سبك فعلي و يا اسمي، نمونه  هايي از كتاب  ها از نويسندگان بزرگ در دوران معاصر را بررسي نموديم، شايسته است كه ساير پژوهشگران آثار نويسندگان دوره  هاي قبل  تر را نيز بررسي كنند

موضع مترجمان نسبت به زبان فاخر در ترجمه متون غير ادبي: مورد پژوهي دو مترجم؛ عبدالله كوثري و نجف دريابندري

چون  که این تحقیق، فقط در زمینه متون غيرادبی انجام گرفت، مناسب است شیوه فاخرگرايي در متون ‌ادبی نیز بررسی شود.
ب‌-  در اين تحقيق، فقط به بررسي يكي از گرايش  هاي تحريفي آنتوان برمن در ترجمه   به زبان فارسي  بسنده شد. بررسي ديگرگرايش  هاي تحريفي ترجمه به فارسی می‌تواند  بر غنای تحقیقات مرتبط بیفزاید و راهگشا باشد.

نقش پیش‌زمینه‌های فرهنگی، اجتماعی و ادبی بر کیفیت کار مترجمان ادبی

این تحقیق اولین تحقیق در نوع خود در ایران بوده است. بنابراین من سعی داشتم که در پرسشنامه از طرح سوالات بسیار جزء‌نگر پرهیز کنم تا کلیت اطلاعاتی که انتظار داشتم از این مصاحبه‌ها در مورد مترجمان ادبی در ایران به دست آید، حاصل شود. اما موضوعات کلی این تحقیق
 مثل:
ــ میزان توجه مترجمان ادبی شاخص به فارسی‌نویسی،
ــ شبکه‌های ارتباطی مترجمان ادبی،
 ــ نقش تعامل ناشر با مترجم در ترجمة ادبی،
 ــ میزان توجه مترجمان ادبی شاخص به ویرایش مجدد متن،
ــ نقش پیش‌زمینه‌های اجتماعی و ادبی و فرهنگی در گرایش مترجمان به ترجمة ادبی
ــ تعریف مترجمان ادبی شاخص از زبان مناسب برای ترجمة ادبی و ترجمة متون کلاسیک و ترجمة با کیفیت 
مطالعاتی اختصاصی و مستقل می‌طلبد که امیدوارم پژوهش‌گران بعدی به آن بپردازند

 


                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                          bazgasht

 

 

 

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تصویر امنیتی
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